£

£

The Economic Value of Cycling
Philippe Crist, International Transport Forum-OECD
Value of the cycling economy

Sport

Leisure

Utilitarian
Value of the cycling economy

£53 billion (EU-2010)
Sales (bicycles and accessories), services,
infrastructure, employment...
Value of the cycling economy

£2.9 billion (UK-2010)

• Employment: £514.9 million (+£106.5 taxes)
~23,415 jobs
• Bicycle ...
Sport

Leisure

Utilitarian
In a city of many cyclists, why do they ride?
Copenhageners’ reasons for cycling to and from work (multiple answers)

it’s...
is for people
who want to go
fast over short
distances
10-15 km/hr

Average speed in European
urban centres at peak periods

15 km/hr (Lyon)
12-14 km/hr (Dublin)
Prudhomme and B...
Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom
2005-2010

39%

of all trips < 2 miles

DFT
Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom
2005-2010

67%

of all trips < 5 miles

DFT
Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom
2005-2010

67%
37%

of all trips < 5 miles

Car share of all trips
that are <5 ...
Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom
2005-2010

67%
37%

of all trips < 5 miles

Car share of all trips
<5 miles

2%...
Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom
2005-2010

57%
of all car trips are
less than 5 miles

DFT
100%

Mode Share by Trip Length
Netherlands
United Kingdom
100%

80%

80%

60%

60%

40%

40%

20%

20%

0%

0%
1

2

3

4...
What mode was replaced by Shared Bicycle use?
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%

ORBIS
is for people
who cannot afford
to be late
Reliability

key performance
indicator for urban traffic
At peak periods, small reductions in traffic deliver
disproportionate reductions in congestion: -1% traffic calculated
to ...
is for shops
who want steady
return patronage
Shops benefit from an environment that is
attractive, encourages return visits and maximises
customer loyalty.
Who spends what in shops?
Revenue in Copenhagen shops and supermarkets by mode of transport (DKK billion/yr)

15.4
15.3
11...
Retail revenue per square foot and per
hour of occupied parking (Melbourne)

$A 0.69
$A 0.19
Lee, 2008
is for people
who value urban
lifestlyes & choices
Jeff Judge,

Co-founder and CEO
15 employees,
2,7M rev.

“The first thing I looked at was what the bike
infrastructure was...
Tami Door,

President, Downtown
Denver Partnership, Inc.

“The number one thing [tech companies] want is bike lanes.
Ten y...
a Viewpoint Construction Software Company

Jay Haladay,

Owner and CEO,
450 employees,
$100 M rev.

“The benefit of a bike...
is for people
who enjoy good
health
on balance, the monetised benefits
from improved health are up to

20x

greater than the combined health
impacts of crashe...
Making cyclists safe
in the current traffic system?
Making the system safe
for (new and existing) cyclists?
of Paris streets 30km or lower
Newcastle Tyne
upon

Tracks &
Lanes
Antwerp, BE

Tracks &
Lanes
Bremen, DE

Tracks &
Lanes
Nantes, FR

Tracks &
Lanes
Sevilla, ES

Tracks &
Lanes
Copenhagen, DK

Tracks &
Lanes
Infrastructure costs

0.4 Million USD/km.
Copenhagen (2009)

1.6 Million USD/km.
Copenhagen (2009)

City of Copenhagen, 20...
£18.7

per capita per year
City of Copenhagen’s annual cycling
infrastructure and maintenance budget

City of Copenhagen,
23%

(2010)

25%

(2008)
(2012)

5%

(2013)

7%

26%
(2012)

(2010)

1%

Newcastle upon Tyne

Copenhagen, DK

Seville, ES
...
41%
Newcastle
households
with no car

UK Census 2011
On balance: benefits and costs
Sensitive to context, assumptions (health, modal
transfer) and costs – but….

13:1

average...
Philippe Crist 05 11 13
Philippe Crist 05 11 13
Philippe Crist 05 11 13
Philippe Crist 05 11 13
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Philippe Crist, OECD

Love Cycling Go Dutch Conference
Newcastle, 5 November 2013

The Economic value of cycling

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Philippe Crist 05 11 13

  1. 1. £ £ The Economic Value of Cycling Philippe Crist, International Transport Forum-OECD
  2. 2. Value of the cycling economy Sport Leisure Utilitarian
  3. 3. Value of the cycling economy £53 billion (EU-2010) Sales (bicycles and accessories), services, infrastructure, employment, tourism. ECF, 2013
  4. 4. Value of the cycling economy £2.9 billion (UK-2010) • Employment: £514.9 million (+£106.5 taxes) ~23,415 jobs • Bicycle and accessory sales: £2,478.2 million) LSE, 2012
  5. 5. Sport Leisure Utilitarian
  6. 6. In a city of many cyclists, why do they ride? Copenhageners’ reasons for cycling to and from work (multiple answers) it’s faster 37% more convenient 29% healthy 26% inexpensive 12% well-being, good start to day 9% new job/ relocation 5% environmental concerns 56% City of Copenhagen, 2012
  7. 7. is for people who want to go fast over short distances
  8. 8. 10-15 km/hr Average speed in European urban centres at peak periods 15 km/hr (Lyon) 12-14 km/hr (Dublin) Prudhomme and Bocarejo, 2005, City of Paris, 2012, Jensen et al, 2010
  9. 9. Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom 2005-2010 39% of all trips < 2 miles DFT
  10. 10. Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom 2005-2010 67% of all trips < 5 miles DFT
  11. 11. Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom 2005-2010 67% 37% of all trips < 5 miles Car share of all trips that are <5 miles DFT
  12. 12. Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom 2005-2010 67% 37% of all trips < 5 miles Car share of all trips <5 miles 2% Bicycle share of all trips <5 miles DFT
  13. 13. Short Distance Trip Market: United Kingdom 2005-2010 57% of all car trips are less than 5 miles DFT
  14. 14. 100% Mode Share by Trip Length Netherlands United Kingdom 100% 80% 80% 60% 60% 40% 40% 20% 20% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 Trip length (miles) 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 DFT, SWOV, OVG/OViN
  15. 15. What mode was replaced by Shared Bicycle use? 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% ORBIS
  16. 16. is for people who cannot afford to be late
  17. 17. Reliability key performance indicator for urban traffic
  18. 18. At peak periods, small reductions in traffic deliver disproportionate reductions in congestion: -1% traffic calculated to reduce travel time for all by up to 18% (Boston-MIT) Wang, P, et al, 2012: doi:10.1038/srep01001
  19. 19. is for shops who want steady return patronage
  20. 20. Shops benefit from an environment that is attractive, encourages return visits and maximises customer loyalty.
  21. 21. Who spends what in shops? Revenue in Copenhagen shops and supermarkets by mode of transport (DKK billion/yr) 15.4 15.3 11.0 6.8 City of Copenhagen
  22. 22. Retail revenue per square foot and per hour of occupied parking (Melbourne) $A 0.69 $A 0.19 Lee, 2008
  23. 23. is for people who value urban lifestlyes & choices
  24. 24. Jeff Judge, Co-founder and CEO 15 employees, 2,7M rev. “The first thing I looked at was what the bike infrastructure was like. It’s so important to me. Cities that invest in biking infrastructure are going to win."
  25. 25. Tami Door, President, Downtown Denver Partnership, Inc. “The number one thing [tech companies] want is bike lanes. Ten years ago we never would have thought that walkability or bike lanes would be economic development tools”
  26. 26. a Viewpoint Construction Software Company Jay Haladay, Owner and CEO, 450 employees, $100 M rev. “The benefit of a bike-friendly worksite is simply that these days, valuable workers seem to prefer it…. any company that doesn't include it in its company culture is making a mistake”
  27. 27. is for people who enjoy good health
  28. 28. on balance, the monetised benefits from improved health are up to 20x greater than the combined health impacts of crashes and exposure to air pollution
  29. 29. Making cyclists safe in the current traffic system?
  30. 30. Making the system safe for (new and existing) cyclists?
  31. 31. of Paris streets 30km or lower
  32. 32. Newcastle Tyne upon Tracks & Lanes
  33. 33. Antwerp, BE Tracks & Lanes
  34. 34. Bremen, DE Tracks & Lanes
  35. 35. Nantes, FR Tracks & Lanes
  36. 36. Sevilla, ES Tracks & Lanes
  37. 37. Copenhagen, DK Tracks & Lanes
  38. 38. Infrastructure costs 0.4 Million USD/km. Copenhagen (2009) 1.6 Million USD/km. Copenhagen (2009) City of Copenhagen, 2012 NACTO, 2012
  39. 39. £18.7 per capita per year City of Copenhagen’s annual cycling infrastructure and maintenance budget City of Copenhagen,
  40. 40. 23% (2010) 25% (2008) (2012) 5% (2013) 7% 26% (2012) (2010) 1% Newcastle upon Tyne Copenhagen, DK Seville, ES Nantes, FR Bremen, DE Antwerp, BE
  41. 41. 41% Newcastle households with no car UK Census 2011
  42. 42. On balance: benefits and costs Sensitive to context, assumptions (health, modal transfer) and costs – but…. 13:1 average benefit to cost ratio (UK and non UK) 8-33% Rates of return for cyclist bridge and intersection re-design in Copenhagen ECF, 2013, Cavill et al, 2008, City of Copenhagen

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