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DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE AND
GENDER DIFFERENCES
1
CULTURE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES
• Gender and culture differences appear
to influence the interactions between
young childre...
• Boys interacted in a more competitive
and egocentric way.
• Boys and girls retain the interaction style
of their genders...
THE IMPORTANCE OF GENDER DIFFERENCES
 Gender differences may result from the
differences in family values and personal
cu...
Sometimes we try to teach the whole class the
same way.
Being able to understand these differences will
help the teacher t...
SOCIAL BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES IN
BOYS
• A student who observes the ambiguous aggressive
behavior of an unfamilia...
• Because of the stereotypes placed on
boys they are associated with physical and
relational aggression.
• Social expectat...
Social Beliefs about Gender
Differences in Boys
•Boys make better engineers and
technicians because they use more
physical...
9
Native American boys who are placed in
competitive relationships with their peers was
the same as being placed in a conf...
SOCIAL BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER
DIFFERENCES IN GIRLS
• Girls are stereotyped as being more successful
in Reading and English.
...
• Girls are involved in relational aggression
which includes behaviors intended to
damage friendships.
• Girls can tend to...
TEACHER BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER
DIFFERENCES IN GIRLS
• Girls are better at computation skills.
• Girls grasp the language ski...
CHILDREN’S BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER
DIFFERENCES
• When public representations of gender
differences are stereotyped, children ...
• Their beliefs are also influenced through
educational practices and society’s
stereotypes.
• Boys and girls from the “ma...
TEACHER BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER
DIFFERENCES IN BOYS
• Boys are better on problem solving tasks skills
such as math.
• Boys gr...
• Boys get called on in class more then girls. It is
because they volunteer to answer more often.
• Boys like to review th...
GENDER DIFFERECES IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ACHIEVEMENTS
• Girls are turned away from computer technology.
• Boys are depicte...
• Girls are thought to be uninterested in computer
technology.
• Both boys and girls use the computer for
communicating, s...
GENDER DIFFERENCES AND GENDER-ROLE
DEVELOPMENT
 Why do people react differently to males
and females?
 Possible explanat...
 Gender Typing: process by which children
acquire gender identity, and motives,
values, and behaviors considered
appropri...
 Gender-role standard: Value, motive, or a
class of behavior that is considered more
appropriate for members of one gende...
 Boys are encouraged to adopt instrumental
role: role of providing for the family and
protecting it from harm.
 Achievem...
 Gender Type: the child by stressing
relationship-oriented attributes for girls
and individualistic attributes for boys.
FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT GENDER
DIFFERENCES
 Verbal ability
 Visual spatial ability
 Mathematical ability
 Aggression
1- VERBAL ABILITY
 Girls have greater verbal abilities than
boys.
 Girls acquire language and develop
verbal skills at a...
2- VISUAL/SPATIAL ABILITIES
 Boys outperform girls on tests of
visual/spatial abilities: the ability to draw
inferences a...
3- MATHEMATICAL ABILITY
 Boys acquire more mathematical problem-
solving strategies that enable them to
outperform girls ...
4- AGGRESSION
 Boys are more physically and verbally
aggressive than girls, starting as early as age two.
 10 times more...
OTHER POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES
Other researchers have provided more possible
differences:
 Activity Level
 Fear, Timidity, a...
CULTURAL MYTHS
 Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) proposed that
many gender-role stereotypes are “cultural
myths” that have no b...
DO CULTURAL MYTHS CONTRIBUTE TO
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ABILITY
 Girls are over represented in fields that call for verbal
...
 1- Home Influences: Parents may often
contribute to gender differences in ability
and self-perceptions by treating their...
DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER
TYPING
 Gender identity- knowledge that one is either a
boy or a girl.
 Gender-role stere...
DEVELOPMENT OF THE GENDER
CONCEPT
 By 4 months, infants have already begun to match
male and female voices with faces.
 ...
DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER-ROLE
STEREOTYPES
 Gender differences in toy preference develops even
before a child has established...
DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER-TYPED
BEHAVIOR
 Gender segregation- Girls prefer to play with other
girls, and boys prefer to play ...
THEORIES OF GENDER TYPING AND
GENDER-ROLE DEVELOPMENT
 Several theories have been proposed to account for
gender differen...
SEVERAL THEORIES TO ACCOUNT FOR GENDER
DIFFERENCES
1- Cultural Explanation: established
through childhood socialization p...
THEORIES OF GENDER TYPING AND
GENDER-ROLE DEVELOPMENT
1- Money and Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory:
 States that biological a...
A-Genetic influences: may contribute to
some gender differences in personality,
cognitive abilities, and social behaviors....
However, it appears that at least half
of the variability in people’s masculine
and feminine self-concepts is
attributabl...
b- Social-Labeling Influences:
 Parents and other people label and begin to
react to the child based on his or her
gender...
 Freud believed that one’s gender identity
and preferences for a gender role emerge
during the phallic stage.
 Boys iden...
 Girls, in trying to please their father’s
incorporate their mother’s feminine
attributes.
5/17/2014
44
3- SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
 According to Banduras children acquire gender
identities and gender-role preferences in 2 ways...
4- KOHLBERG’S COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL
THEORY
 Gender-role development depends on
cognitive development; children must
acq...
 Basic gender identity- By age 3, children have
labeled firmly themselves as boys or girls.
 Gender stability-child reco...
5- GENDER SCHEMA THEORY
 Martin and Halverson claim that establishment of
gender identity motivates a child to learn abou...
PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION
FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY?
 Androgyny-individual incorporates both masculine
a...
APPLICATIONS: ON CHANGING GENDER-
ROLE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS
 Parents must:
 1)teach that biological sex is unimportan...
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Lecture 4 culture and diversity culture and gender differences lecture 4

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Counseling Psychology and Pedagogy Master Program
PSD 437

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Lecture 4 culture and diversity culture and gender differences lecture 4

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES 1
  2. 2. CULTURE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES • Gender and culture differences appear to influence the interactions between young children who are learning basic motor skills. • Girls interacted caringly when they feel accepted by any culture. 2
  3. 3. • Boys interacted in a more competitive and egocentric way. • Boys and girls retain the interaction style of their genders when relating to the opposite gender. 5/17/2014 3
  4. 4. THE IMPORTANCE OF GENDER DIFFERENCES  Gender differences may result from the differences in family values and personal cultural beliefs.  For example:  Teacher can be more effective when they can reach all children in the classroom.  Understanding these differences will allow the child to be taught in the most effective way possible. 4
  5. 5. Sometimes we try to teach the whole class the same way. Being able to understand these differences will help the teacher to be aware of their own stereotypes of gender differences. Boys and girls have different needs and teachers need to take this into account when creating learning environments. 5
  6. 6. SOCIAL BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BOYS • A student who observes the ambiguous aggressive behavior of an unfamiliar male peer will more than likely interpret that behavior as aggressive. • A boy is often treated with suspicion by the teacher even if he is doing nothing wrong. As a result, the boy can become angry and defensive which in turn can affect how he is treated by his peers. 6
  7. 7. • Because of the stereotypes placed on boys they are associated with physical and relational aggression. • Social expectations and informal influences when children are young the reason behind the classroom gender differences between boys and girls. 5/17/2014 7
  8. 8. Social Beliefs about Gender Differences in Boys •Boys make better engineers and technicians because they use more physical human beings. •Males are more assertive in competition and individualism. 8
  9. 9. 9 Native American boys who are placed in competitive relationships with their peers was the same as being placed in a conflict with their fundamental beliefs of how people should interact together. The male student is more concerned with tribal unity over the competitive structure of a non-Indian teachers. Native American boys seek the approval of their own culturally relevant peers for validation of appropriate behavior.
  10. 10. SOCIAL BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES IN GIRLS • Girls are stereotyped as being more successful in Reading and English. • Girls are more likely to exhibit some form of pro social behavior to feel more accepted among their peers. 10
  11. 11. • Girls are involved in relational aggression which includes behaviors intended to damage friendships. • Girls can tend to have a lower self-esteem and poorer body image because of the competition for the perfect body. 5/17/2014 11
  12. 12. TEACHER BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES IN GIRLS • Girls are better at computation skills. • Girls grasp the language skills as well as boys. • Girls are more aggressive towards each other as they age. This is because they learn from watching other girls exhibit relational aggression. • Girls contribute to the male dominance in the classroom. 12
  13. 13. CHILDREN’S BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES • When public representations of gender differences are stereotyped, children will often use their personal experiences to form their own opinions about gender. • Children’s beliefs about gender differences are also influenced through a range of media. 13
  14. 14. • Their beliefs are also influenced through educational practices and society’s stereotypes. • Boys and girls from the “mainstream” culture have the same high expectations while children from the minority cultures have lower expectations. 5/17/2014 14
  15. 15. TEACHER BELIEFS ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BOYS • Boys are better on problem solving tasks skills such as math. • Boys grasp the language skills as well as females. • Boys outperform girls in science. • Boys have difference learning needs then girls. 15
  16. 16. • Boys get called on in class more then girls. It is because they volunteer to answer more often. • Boys like to review their learning experiences more then girls. • Classmates will ask for help from boys rather then girls. 5/17/2014 16
  17. 17. GENDER DIFFERECES IN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ACHIEVEMENTS • Girls are turned away from computer technology. • Boys are depicted by the media as experts in technology. • Boys have higher expectations regarding technology areas. 17
  18. 18. • Girls are thought to be uninterested in computer technology. • Both boys and girls use the computer for communicating, self expression and personal interests. 5/17/2014 18
  19. 19. GENDER DIFFERENCES AND GENDER-ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Why do people react differently to males and females?  Possible explanations: Biological differences, societies expectations
  20. 20.  Gender Typing: process by which children acquire gender identity, and motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate in their culture for members of their biological identity. 5/17/2014 20
  21. 21.  Gender-role standard: Value, motive, or a class of behavior that is considered more appropriate for members of one gender than the other.  Girls are typically encouraged to assume expressive role: being kind, nurturant, cooperative and sensitive.
  22. 22.  Boys are encouraged to adopt instrumental role: role of providing for the family and protecting it from harm.  Achievement and self-reliance more strongly encouraged in young boys.  Nurturance, responsibility and obedience more encouraged in young girls.
  23. 23.  Gender Type: the child by stressing relationship-oriented attributes for girls and individualistic attributes for boys.
  24. 24. FACTS AND FICTIONS ABOUT GENDER DIFFERENCES  Verbal ability  Visual spatial ability  Mathematical ability  Aggression
  25. 25. 1- VERBAL ABILITY  Girls have greater verbal abilities than boys.  Girls acquire language and develop verbal skills at an earlier age.  Girls display small but consistent verbal advantage on tests of reading comprehension and speech fluency.
  26. 26. 2- VISUAL/SPATIAL ABILITIES  Boys outperform girls on tests of visual/spatial abilities: the ability to draw inferences about or to mentally manipulate pictorial information.  Not large difference, but detectable as early as age 4 and persists across life span.
  27. 27. 3- MATHEMATICAL ABILITY  Boys acquire more mathematical problem- solving strategies that enable them to outperform girls on complex word problems, geometry, and the SAT math portion.
  28. 28. 4- AGGRESSION  Boys are more physically and verbally aggressive than girls, starting as early as age two.  10 times more likely to be involved in antisocial behavior and violent crime during adolescence.  Girls display more covert forms of hostility such as undermining or ignoring.
  29. 29. OTHER POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES Other researchers have provided more possible differences:  Activity Level  Fear, Timidity, and Risk Taking  Developmental Vulnerability  Emotional Expressivity/Sensitivity  Compliance
  30. 30. CULTURAL MYTHS  Maccoby and Jacklin (1974) proposed that many gender-role stereotypes are “cultural myths” that have no basis in fact.  Gender-role stereotypes are well-ingrained cognitive schemes that we use to interpret and often distort the behavior of males and females.
  31. 31. DO CULTURAL MYTHS CONTRIBUTE TO GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ABILITY  Girls are over represented in fields that call for verbal ability, and seriously under represented in fields such as science and technology.  Why? Actual differences, or self-fulfilling prophecy?
  32. 32.  1- Home Influences: Parents may often contribute to gender differences in ability and self-perceptions by treating their sons and daughters differently.  2- Scholastic Influences: Teachers also have stereotyped beliefs about the relative abilities of boys and girls.
  33. 33. DEVELOPMENTAL TRENDS IN GENDER TYPING  Gender identity- knowledge that one is either a boy or a girl.  Gender-role stereotypes-ideas about what girls and boys are supposed to be like.  Gender-typed patterns of behavior-child’s tendency to favor same-sex activities over those of opposite sex.
  34. 34. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GENDER CONCEPT  By 4 months, infants have already begun to match male and female voices with faces.  Between ages 2 and 3, Children begin to correctly use labels such as “mommy” and “daddy”.  Between 5 and 7 children realize that gender is unchanging.
  35. 35. DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER-ROLE STEREOTYPES  Gender differences in toy preference develops even before a child has established a clear gender identity.  By age 10 to 11 children’s stereotyping begins to rival that of adults.  Early adolescents develop increased intolerance of cross-gender mannerisms and behaviors.
  36. 36. DEVELOPMENT OF GENDER-TYPED BEHAVIOR  Gender segregation- Girls prefer to play with other girls, and boys prefer to play with other boys.  Macoby believes that this largely reflects differences in play styles-an incompatibility that may stem from boy’s heightened levels of androgen.
  37. 37. THEORIES OF GENDER TYPING AND GENDER-ROLE DEVELOPMENT  Several theories have been proposed to account for gender differences and the development of gender roles.  Some theories emphasize the role of biological differences between the genders and others emphasize social influences.  Some emphasize how society influences children, others the choices children make and their consequences.
  38. 38. SEVERAL THEORIES TO ACCOUNT FOR GENDER DIFFERENCES 1- Cultural Explanation: established through childhood socialization process. 2- Structural Explanation: arise from common positions in social structures. 3- Social Role Theory: men and women behave according to the stereotypes associated with social roles they occupy. 38
  39. 39. THEORIES OF GENDER TYPING AND GENDER-ROLE DEVELOPMENT 1- Money and Ehrhardt’s Biosocial Theory:  States that biological and social influences interact to determine a person’s behaviors and role preferences.  First critical event occurs at conception, when the infant receives the X or Y chromosome.  Once a child is born, social factors immediately come into play.
  40. 40. A-Genetic influences: may contribute to some gender differences in personality, cognitive abilities, and social behaviors.  Hormones and congenital defects can have great effects.
  41. 41. However, it appears that at least half of the variability in people’s masculine and feminine self-concepts is attributable to environmental influences. 5/17/2014 41
  42. 42. b- Social-Labeling Influences:  Parents and other people label and begin to react to the child based on his or her gender.  Puberty, combined with one’s earlier self- concept as a male or female, provide the basis for an adult gender identity and gender role preference.
  43. 43.  Freud believed that one’s gender identity and preferences for a gender role emerge during the phallic stage.  Boys identify with father’s out of fear of being castrated, thus resolving their Oedipus complex. 2- FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY:
  44. 44.  Girls, in trying to please their father’s incorporate their mother’s feminine attributes. 5/17/2014 44
  45. 45. 3- SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY  According to Banduras children acquire gender identities and gender-role preferences in 2 ways:  Direct tuition-children rewarded or punished for behaviors.  Observational learning- in watching others children adopt attitudes and behaviors.
  46. 46. 4- KOHLBERG’S COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY  Gender-role development depends on cognitive development; children must acquire certain understandings about gender before they will be influenced by their social experiences.  Children actively socialize themselves; they are not merely passive pawns of social influence.
  47. 47.  Basic gender identity- By age 3, children have labeled firmly themselves as boys or girls.  Gender stability-child recognizes that gender is stable over time.  Gender consistency-child recognizes that gender is invariant despite changes in activities or appearance.
  48. 48. 5- GENDER SCHEMA THEORY  Martin and Halverson claim that establishment of gender identity motivates a child to learn about sexes.  Child incorporates information into gender schemas-organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females.
  49. 49. PSYCHOLOGICAL ANDROGYNY: A PRESCRIPTION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY?  Androgyny-individual incorporates both masculine and feminine attributes into his/her personality.  Bem demonstrated that these people act more flexibly than more traditionally gender-typed individuals.
  50. 50. APPLICATIONS: ON CHANGING GENDER- ROLE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS  Parents must:  1)teach that biological sex is unimportant outside domain of reproduction  2) delay children’s exposure to gender stereotypes by encouraging cross and same-sex play, and by dividing household (mom mowing lawn; dad cooking).

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