● Terms sometimes used interchangeably● Both valuable for ELLsSentence Stemsvs.Sentence FramesWhich is it?
Sentence Stemsgenerally encourage students to completea thought in an open-ended way●If I had three wishes...●My favorite animal is...●My ideal vacation would be...
Sentence Framesteach language patterns and providethe linguistic structure to speak or writeabout a topic or concept● One similararity between _____ and_____ is _____. One difference between_____ and ______ is _____.
Why Use Frames?Academic Proficiency● Provide structural supports for thinking, speakingand writing, quickly moving ELLs beyond “thebasics” to higher-order thought processes● Elevate class discussions● Promote oral language development, whichplays a key role in reading comprehension
Why Use Frames?Language Proficiency● Provide linguistic scaffolding to balancecognitive demands with language demands● Enable students to see the patterns inlanguage● Help students build internal templates forexpressive language (not a crutch)
Benefits● Enable teachers to model what a goodresponse looks like● Help students make meaning by tyingideas together
Benefits of FramesStudent Perspective● Bring ELLs into the discussion from thebeginning● Build confidence & decrease anxiety about beingcalled on and knowing what to say● Allow students to focus on the content andconcepts and on the background knowledgethey bring
How can I Include Frames inMy ESL setting?● Push-in: Portable sentence strips or fold-out display board● Classroom: Language posted on walls● Both: Small sheet taped your ELLs desksor notebook
Building Bridges to WhatStudents KnowDespite all they bring, ELLs typically have:● Decreased opportunities to discuss topics inEnglish and hear associated vocabulary andsentence structures outside of school● Decreased opportunities to connect what theyalready know (background knowledge) to topicsraised at school
How Can I Integrate FramesInto My Lesson Plans?Sentence frames can be used● across content areas● during partner work: "Turn-and-Talk"● for prompts in writing journals● activation or closing activity (ticket out)● assessment: determine understanding of acomplex concept or skill withoutinterference from language differences
Using Frames With GraphicOrganizers and Other Visuals● With visuals, students may get theconcept, but are they able to articulatewhat they know?● By keeping language demands down,mental space and energy are freed up totake in higher-level concepts.
Additional ResourcesLiteracyMalden●http://literacymalden.wikispaces.com/Oral+Language (contains list of stemsand frames)●http://literacymalden.wikispaces.com/Higher+Order+Thinking●http://literacymalden.wikispaces.com/QuestionAnswerRelationships
Presenter InformationI hold an Ed.M. from the Harvard GraduateSchool of Education and a B.A. in Writing. Icurrently teach ESL K-8 in Malden and havepreviously worked as a journalist and as awriter/editor at the Education Alliance at BrownUniversity.