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Redox Reactions   © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com -  electron-transfer reactions  where reduction & oxidation occur simultaneously . Oxidation number or oxidation states   - Arbitrary numbers assigned to atoms to describe their relative states of oxidation or reduction. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Oxidation Reduction
Oxidizing & Reducing Agents   © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com Oxidizing Agent - gains electrons - undergoes  reduction - Oxidation state of atom  decreases Reducing Agent - loses electrons - undergoes  oxidation - Oxidation state of atom  increases
© my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com H 2 O H 2 O 2 Fe 2+ Fe 3+ I - I 2  (aq)   I 2  (aq) IO 3 - Cr 3+ Cr 2 O 7 2- MnO 2  (s) (in base) Mn 2+  (in acid) MnO 4 - Reduced Species Common Oxidizing Agents S 2 O 3 2- H 2 O H 2 O 2 Fe 3+ Fe 2+ I 2  (aq) I -     NO 3 - NO 2 - O 2  (g) H 2 O 2   S 4 O 6 2- CO 2  (g) C 2 O 4 2- Oxidized Species Common Reducing Agents
Assigning Oxidation States   © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com (I)  Elements   (O 2 , P 4 , S 8 )  All atoms in an element have an O.S. of  zero .  (II)  Ions  (Na + , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ )  O.S. =  charge  on ion. (III)  Covalent molecules   (H 2 O 2 , H 2 S, CH 4 )  Assume bond is ionic.  e -  in bond are assumed to reside on the more    electronegative atom. (IV)  Complex ions   (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - ) - Sum of O.S. of elements = charge on ion - Notable exceptions: S 2 O 3 2- , S 4 O 6 2- , S 2 O 8 2-
© my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com O a  = -2 O b  = -1 S = +6 S a  = +6 S b  = -1 O = -2 S a  = +6 S b  = -2 O = -2
Disproportionation   © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com ,[object Object],Example Catalysis of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen by the enzyme catalase:  2H 2 O 2     ->  2H 2 O    +  O 2   Oxidation -1   0 Reduction -1   -2

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Redox (I)

  • 1.
  • 2. Oxidizing & Reducing Agents © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com Oxidizing Agent - gains electrons - undergoes reduction - Oxidation state of atom decreases Reducing Agent - loses electrons - undergoes oxidation - Oxidation state of atom increases
  • 3. © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com H 2 O H 2 O 2 Fe 2+ Fe 3+ I - I 2 (aq) I 2 (aq) IO 3 - Cr 3+ Cr 2 O 7 2- MnO 2 (s) (in base) Mn 2+ (in acid) MnO 4 - Reduced Species Common Oxidizing Agents S 2 O 3 2- H 2 O H 2 O 2 Fe 3+ Fe 2+ I 2 (aq) I - NO 3 - NO 2 - O 2 (g) H 2 O 2 S 4 O 6 2- CO 2 (g) C 2 O 4 2- Oxidized Species Common Reducing Agents
  • 4. Assigning Oxidation States © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com (I) Elements (O 2 , P 4 , S 8 ) All atoms in an element have an O.S. of zero . (II) Ions (Na + , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ ) O.S. = charge on ion. (III) Covalent molecules (H 2 O 2 , H 2 S, CH 4 ) Assume bond is ionic. e - in bond are assumed to reside on the more electronegative atom. (IV) Complex ions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - ) - Sum of O.S. of elements = charge on ion - Notable exceptions: S 2 O 3 2- , S 4 O 6 2- , S 2 O 8 2-
  • 5. © my-chem-tutor.blogspot.com O a = -2 O b = -1 S = +6 S a = +6 S b = -1 O = -2 S a = +6 S b = -2 O = -2
  • 6.