Wireless Networks


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Wireless Networks

  1. 1. Wireless Networks Inherent Weaknesses PCWorld – Nov. 2002
  2. 2. Home/Small Business Networks <ul><li>Drawback – wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Solution – wireless networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless access point or router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses 802.11b or faster 802.11a protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless access cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One to two block radius broadcasting range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless the wireless router’s security features are enabled, you may be sharing your bandwidth with “Digital Hobos” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Wireless Interception <ul><li>Needed equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless enabled notebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless client card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NetStumbler software for detecting networks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Security folks wanting to check that their corporate LAN isn't wide open </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems admins wanting to check coverage of their Wireless LAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gatherers of demographic information about 802.11 popularity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive-by snoopers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overly curious bystanders. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Unsecure Wireless Webs <ul><li>Wireless “Digital Hobos” can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture and view the contents of your wireless-network traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Log-in passwords </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hijack your online identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hijack your network to launch attacks on other computers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WEP <ul><li>Solution – Enable Wireless Equivalent Privacy (WEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication and encryption tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticates anyone accesses the wireless network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still flawed – can be cracked with a little knowledgeable effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better than nothing </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Digital Hobos <ul><li>Traveling Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) users mark curbs or walls in locations where they find a freely usable wireless network </li></ul>
  7. 7. War Driving <ul><li>Las Vegas – DefCon hacker conference last summer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Term derived from the “war-dialing” exploits of the teenage hacker character in the 1983 move WarGames, who has his computer randomly dial hundreds of numbers and eventually winds up tapping into a nuclear command-and-control system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80 contestants spent 2 hours driving through town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Author’s team found 200 wireless access points with no security or limited security within a 9-mile radius of the strip (banks, law offices, and other business completely unprotected) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winning team found more than 500 vulnerable access points </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Security <ul><li>Vendors ship wireless products with their built-in security turned off by default </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling WEP keeps out casual hackers </li></ul><ul><li>Most users never change their wireless network’s default settings, let alone secure them </li></ul>
  9. 9. Secret Service War Drives <ul><li>U.S. Secret Service agents with Laptops containing wireless LAN access cards with Pringles cans as antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Searches for unsecured WLAN systems in venues where President will be visiting </li></ul><ul><li>Contact enterprises, identify themselves and inform about vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic version of a police officer “telling someone their door is unlocked” </li></ul>ComputerWorld Oct. 3, 2002
  10. 10. <ul><li>SSID - Short for S ervice S et Id entifier , a 32-character unique identifier attached to the header of packets sent over a WLAN that acts as a password. An SSID is also referred to as a Network Name because essentially it is a name that identifies a wireless network </li></ul>
  11. 11. WorldWide WarDrive <ul><li>What is the WorldWide WarDrive? The WorldWide WarDrive is an effort by security professionals and hobbyists to generate awareness of the need by individual users and companies to secure their access points. The goal of the WorldWide WarDrive (or WWWD) is to provide a statistical analysis of the many access points that are currently deployed. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you hope to accomplish? We feel that many end users are not aware that the factory or &quot;default&quot; settings on Access Points do not take any security measures into account. By providing these statistics we hope that end users will become aware of the need to take simple measures to secure their access points. </li></ul>
  12. 12. WorldWide WarDrive <ul><li>CATEGORY TOTAL PERCENT </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL APs FOUND 9374 100 </li></ul><ul><li>WEP Enabled 2825 30.13 </li></ul><ul><li>No WEP Enabled 6549 69.86 </li></ul><ul><li>Default SSID 2768 29.53 </li></ul><ul><li>Default SSID and </li></ul><ul><li>No WEP Enabled 2497 26.64 </li></ul><ul><li>Unique SSIDs 3672 39.17 </li></ul><ul><li>Most Common SSID 1778 18.97 </li></ul><ul><li>2nd Most Common SSID 623 6.65 </li></ul>The First WorldWide WarDrive took place between 31 August and 7 September 2002. The Next WorldWide WarDrive is scheduled for 26 October thru 2 November. www.worldwide wardrive.org/wwwd1/wwwdstats.html