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  1. 1. COMPUTER 8 NETWORKS COMPUTER NETWORKS S GANGULY Structure 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Networking through Computers 8.2.1 Types of Network 8.2.2 Network Topologies 8.2.3 Network Components 8.3 Internet 8.3.1 Trends 8.3.2 Adult Education 8.4 Importance of Internet 8.4.1 Disadvantages of Internet 8.4.2 Benefits of Internet 8.5 Case Studies-I 8.5.1 ALTIN: Focus on teachers. 8.5.2 SHELCOM: Focus on Learners 8.5.3 Literacy Link 8.5.4 Conclusions and Future Directions 8.6 Case Studies - II 8.6.1 Information Production and Dissemination through Network 8.6.2 Demand Driven Information Production in the Warna Wired Village Project 8.6.3 Creating Rural Knowledge Repositories 8.6.4 Local Websites 8.6.5 Databases 8.6.6 Bulletin Boards 8.6.7 Email Lists 8.7 Participation in Application Network 8.7.1 Example for an Application Network: FarmNet 8.7.2 Community Education 8.8 Conclusion 8.9 Apply What You Have Learnt Learning Objectives It is expected that after going through Unit 8 on Computer Networks you would be able to Understand basics of the various types network technologies in the area of computers, Local Area Network (LAN) and different components of computer network Familiarize yourself with the Internet and its terminologies, web addresses, advantages, benefits disadvantages and its usages in the field of adult 81
  2. 2. S GANGULY education Acquaint yourself with needs and demands of creating demand driven information, rural knowledge repositories, importance of local websites, databases, bulletin boards e-mail lists, etc. in adult education by the help of different case studies Appreciate the importance of participation in application oriented networks and community education 8.1 Introduction In Unit 7 we mentioned about distant places for exchange of data/ electronics-based networking. In order information. A group of two or more to understand fully the concept of this computer systems linked together is type of networking Unit 8 introduces known as computer network. you in greater detail to computer Networking has revolutionized use of the networks. With the greater use of computer. It is more cost effective and computers it was realized that the use productivity is also gained. It allows of the computer could not be restricted computers and their users to share to a particular place. A need was felt information and resources. Its other to link computers located at different uses are database server, computer places, e.g. in the same room or server, email, chat, internet, etc. scattered through a building or at 8.2 Networking through Computers In Unit 7 you read how networking Local Area Network (LAN) through computers is emerging and no Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) one could keep himself/herself away Wide Area Network (WAN) from it any longer. But, what are the types of a network within the arena of Local Area Network computers? Those are LAN, MAN and In this type of network computers and WAN. Not only this, there are certain other communication devices are in a topologies associated with it and there small area and are connected together are certain components which carry out (networked). The area can be single these functions. We need to acquaint building, cluster of buildings in the same ourselves with these technical words and campus. Examples can be Local Area their usages when we move to the area Network of Lab in which you may be of networking through computers and working or a library which you may be extend its use in reaching out to adult using. learners. Let’s discuss in detail about Metropolitan Area Network seemingly strange terms and their A Metropolitan Area Network is basically everyday applications. a bigger version of LAN and normally 8.2. 1 Types of Network uses similar technology. It might cover Based on geographical dispersion of a group of nearby corporate offices or computers there are mainly three types it can be in a city. It can be private or 82 of network. public.
  3. 3. Wide Area Network network or network’s layout. How COMPUTER NETWORKS different nodes in a network are Computers can be farther apart like connected to each other and how they covering cities, countries or even communicate is determined by the continents. The computers are network’s topology. There are four most connected by telephone lines or radio common network topologies, namely, i) waves or optical fibres. Bus Topology, ii) Star Topology, iii) Ring 8.2.2 Network Topologies Topology and iv) Mesh Topology (See Topology refers to the shape of a Figure 8.1). Figure 8.1 Network Topologies – Star, Bus and Ring Bus Topology network nodes. In a true mesh topology All devices are connected to a central every node has a connection to every cable, called the bus or backbone. other node in the network. Star Topology 8.2.3 Network Components All devices are connected to a central The following are essential components hub. Nodes communicate across the for computer networking. network by passing data through the a) Network hardware hub. b) Transmission media Ring Topology c) Network software All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that Let us discuss each component in some each device is connected directly to two detail. other devices, one on either side of it. a) Network Hardware Mesh Topology or Point to Point The basic component of computer Network network hardware is a computer. Devices are connected with many Computers on a network can be divided redundant interconnections between into two categories, 83
  4. 4. S GANGULY i) server and the middle part of connection. These ii) clients or nodes. cards are 8 bit cards, 16 bit cards and 32 bit cards. Each card has its own Server is the computer of higher power, method of sending information and speed. It costs more. To this (network protocol) through the cable. computer resources are attached. And The most commonly used is Ethernet the clients, also known as nodes access, Protocol. A network card is called are the resources which are attached Interface card, network adapter, a NIC to server. In peer to peer computer etc. It is a circuit board or chip which networks there are no servers. allows the computer to communicate to b) Transmission Media other computers on a network. Communication of data propagation Modem (MODulator / DEModulator) and processing of signals is called A modem converts digital signals transmission. Signals travel from (computer signals) from the computer transmitter to receiver via a path. This into analogue signals for transmission path is called medium. Medium can be and vice versa for reception over a guided or unguided. telephone line. There are four basic types of modems for a PC: i) External, Guided Media ii) USB, iii) Internal and iv) Built-in. In guided media, data is sent along a External and USB are set on your desk physical path i.e. cables. There are outside the PC, while as Internal and several types of cables used in network. Built-in are inside the PC. Present day The type of cable chosen for a network modems have 56 kilobites per second is related to the network’s topology, speed. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital protocol and size. Different types of Network) circuits are digital. In this cables are a) coaxial cables, b) Twisted conversion from digital to analogue is pair copper wire, and c) Optical fibre not required. cable. a) Coaxial cable looks like cable that Switch brings the cable TV signal to Switches are basically bridges, but usually television. have multiple ports. Switches connect b) Twisted pair copper wire cable looks network segments, using a table of like phone cable. Twisted pair cables addresses to determine the segment on come in two varieties, a. shielded which a packet needs to be transmitted. and b. unshielded. Hubs c) Optical fibre cable A hub is used to connect multiple computers and devices via a dedicated Unguided Media cable. It is cheap and connections are Here no wire is installed. The data easy. It generally has 4, 8, 12, 24 ports. communication is predominantly sent by radio waves and microwaves. Router These are used to connect networks and Network Card to determine the optimal path along which We will discuss about networking the network traffic should be forwarded. software. But hardware has also to be They are occasionally called gateways. connected. Most important part of There are other network devices like 84 connection is the network card. This is repeaters, bridges, ports, etc.
  5. 5. c) Network Operating Software Windows XP is peer to peer networking COMPUTER NETWORKS Network operating software (NOS) is a software. collection of software and associated Client Server Based (Two Tier) protocols that allow a set of autonomous This software is in two parts. One part computers, which are interconnected by which includes functions and services a computer network, to be used resides in one or more exclusive together in a convenient and cost- (dedicated) computers. This part is effective manner. It is similar to any called server. It provides security and other operating system like windows, access to resources. Another part called DOS, etc. except it operates over more ‘client’ resides on other computers than one computer. It controls operation (nodes / client). They access resources of the network system, including who on the server. The network operating uses it, when they can use it, what they system allows multiple users to have access to, and which network simultaneously share the same resources resources are available. irrespective of physical location. At a basic level, the NOS allows network Examples of Server based networking users to share files and peripherals such software are: Novel Netware, Windows as disks and printers. They provide data NT, UNIX, Window 2000 etc. integrity and security. The examples can be categories of NOS: The NetWare, Client Server Based (Three Tier) LAN Manager, Solaris and Windows 2000 Here a client-software is split into two etc. parts. i) Browser (user-interface) (thin client) The main categories of network ii) Logic. software are i) Peer to peer software and ii) Client / Server-based Thus two tier client-server becomes three tier architecture. The logic which Peer to Peer Software describes how to access and process In peer to peer networking operating data is moved to a new server. This software users can share resources and new server is server for thin client. files located on their computers and can Nothing changes in the server side. access shared resources on other computers. There is no central server. LAN All computers in the network are equal. Standards for LAN are Ethernet, They have similar capabilities and LocalTalk (for Macs), Token Ring, the resources. Examples of Peer to peer most popular in Ethernet Protocol. It network software are Windows XP, allows for linear bus, star or tree Windows 98. When you are working in topologies. Data can be transmitted Microsoft Office Word under Windows over twisted pair, coaxial or fibre optic environment, you can share the shared cable at a speed of 10mbps. documents. It is possible because Activity 8.1 Do you have a computer in your adult learning set up? If yes, try to identify the type of network it has and its topology or the shape of its layout. Then with the help of a computer expert, try to find out the type of its network hardware, transmission media and network software. Write a short account of 500 words on your information about the computer in your adult learning setup. 85
  6. 6. S GANGULY 8.3 Internet The Internet is a network of networks. Internet 2: It is a consortium being led It connects millions of computers and by 200 universities working in partnership thousands of computer networks with industry and government to throughout the world. The Internet has develop and deploy advanced network revolutionised our society, our economy applications and technologies, and our technological systems. The accelerating the creation of tomorrow’s Internet represents one of the most Internet. successful examples of the benefits of Internet 3: It includes the US sustained investment and commitment Government’s initiative to provide high to research and development of the bandwidth network service. information infrastructure. The Internet Society (ISOC) defines the 8.3.2 Adult Education Internet as a “global network of There are discussion groups and e-mail networks” which enables computers of lists relating to adult learning. You may all kinds to directly and transparently try to access some of the following communicate and share services resources. throughout the world. It provides for Discussion groups both communications capabilities and is a group information services. It also constitutes that focuses on learning over the a shared global resource of information, Internet, a form of distance knowledge and means of collaboration education. and cooperation among countless bit.listserv.edtech is an adult diverse communities. For education discussion group. communication on Internet it uses is an adult standard protocol which is called education discussion group (All the three transmission control protocol, Internet visited by the author on 27.9.2006). Protocol or TCP/IP. Standardized communication protocols allow similar, Email Lists dissimilar, near and distant computers ADNET is the adult education to communicate with one another. The network Internet protocols and standards are URL: being defined from time to time by various international organization and DEOS-L is the international forum committees after rigorous testing and for distance learning. reviewing. URL: DISTED is an online chronicle of 8.3.1 Trends Distance Education and You may like to know about Internet 2 Communication and Internet 3, which reflect future URL: trends in computer networks. 8.4 Importance of Internet The Internet is an “enabling technology”. values and committed to local capacity- 86 When its introduction is sensitive to local building, it offers important
  7. 7. opportunities to fully realized. Indeed, the internet is COMPUTER NETWORKS Open dialogue: Low cost by nature an anonymous medium in networking facilitates knowledge which people find it hard to place their sharing, awareness of alternative trust. As a result, people who have had perspectives, more open exchange few or no face-to-face meetings are Improve governance: Raising not likely to share knowledge. efficiency, transparency, participatory systems 8.4.2 Benefits of Internet It supports and encourages the new Improve social and human rights learning environment, which is based on conditions: Expands access to better principles of active learning-reflecting quality education, healthcare, the change in the culture of education disaster relief capacity and other from teacher-centred to learner- services centred. Reduce poverty: Opens new opportunities for bypassed groups The Internet can be used for a variety (women, the poor, rural populations, of purposes from a library. Some of the children) purposes are Introduce economic opportunities: to exchange e-mail instantly with E-commerce, ICT-sector institutions in India or abroad development etc. to participate in teleconferences Improve environmental with people on topics of internet or management, GIS: Food security research problems like adult early warning systems. education Support indigenous knowledge: to find out educational information Communities document their from universities libraries and book knowledge. stores all over the world to search on-line library catalogues 8.4.1 Disadvantages of Internet for bibliographic data and other Advances in communication media (VoIP, databases for textual data Instant messaging, email), based on to have access to electronic journals, Internet technology have made newsletters and in-house computer mediated communication information of many organisations more rich and cheap. Yet, today, this and institutions. potential for knowledge sharing is not Activity 8.2 Have you ever used the Internet? If yes, write briefly about the contexts in which you use the Internet. Do you find it an enabling technology? If yes, then write in one short paragraph, how it has enabled you to do what. Let us now look at some case studies in order to learn from the practice of computer networking. 8.5 Case Studies - I Here we will discuss about the network we will talk about a network that links that focuses on teachers and another literacy efforts and also about futures network that focuses on learners. Then trends. 87
  8. 8. S GANGULY 8.5.1 ALTIN: Focus on Teachers poorly educated adults also suffered The gradually increasing use of from a variety of problems associated instructional technology and online with drug and alcohol use. SHELCOM communications in the field of adult showed that such disadvantaged literacy is creating both new populations can be reached effectively opportunities and reviving old challenges. through the Internet, in spite of the initial low literacy abilities of many ALTIN: The purpose of the Adult participants. Literacy Technology Innovation Network (ALTIN) technology training program, 8.5.3 Literacy Link begun in the mid-1990 was to provide Distance education for learners and basic instructional technology staff teachers: Literacy Link, funded by the development for adult literacy teachers, U.S. Department of Education is including the basics of instructional designed to serve the large numbers of technology and electronic online Americans who require additional basic communications in a useful and user- skills instruction. As an Internet-based friendly way, while at the same time lifelong learning system, Literacy Link building a network of practitioners who has two major goals: (a) to increase can, after the six months of training, the access of adults to learning assist other literacy programs and opportunities that will enable them to practitioners by means of a mentoring obtain their high school diplomas, and process. ALTIN has shown that an (b) to improve the quality of instruction electronic training network works best available to individuals and adult literacy when participants have established a providers nationwide through enhanced human network among themselves when resources and expanded staff they are able to identify commonalities development. Literacy Link is one of of interest and need, have established the first and most comprehensive a level of trust and commitment among initiatives to harness the power of the themselves, and can identify areas of Internet to provide instruction and collaboration and communication that demand to adult learners, as well as will result in mutual benefit. Face-to- communities, libraries, schools and face meetings appear to make such a homes. people-to-people connection easier, helping to increase the level of trust, 8.5.4 Conclusions and Future facilitating the identification of areas Directions of mutual interest and concern among The above case studies illustrate a few participants, and increasing the of the opportunities that have become accountability and commitment that available through Internet. Some of participants have to each other online. them are staff development, reaching out to the disadvantaged, and taking 8.5.2 SHELCOM: Focus on Learners advantage of the convenience of The shelter communications Literacy learning in the home or community. In Network was an experimental Internet- the ALTIN case study, it was found that based computer writing project for human networks are an essential adults living in homeless shelters in component to the electronic networks Philadelphia, USA. The project began that are now easily and cheaply available in 1993 and completed in 1995. These 88 on the Internet. The SHELCOM project
  9. 9. demonstrated that new technologies can techniques. Literacy Link deals with COMPUTER NETWORKS be implemented with even the most how distance education can provide a difficult to reach and difficult-to-retain cost-effective and comprehensive self- populations, using fairly simple learning system for adult education in networking and word-processing the home and community. Activity 8.3 Do-it-Yourself: ICT & Adult Education Network It is possible to establish an adult education workers network. In order to communicate with each other adult educators can create an EnoP based on Listserv Technology. This can also encourage knowledge sharing among them. There is listserv-software available, like names of SWS. Or alternatively using “Yahoo mail” they can form “Yahoo group of adult workers”. A mailing list of resource people has to be made. If a person needs help to know how to perform a particular task or availability of some information he/she can post a question to the whole network through mailing list. Members of mailing list will reply to his/her question and his/her problem shall be solved. 8.6 Case Studies - II P roduction of information and its programs, information on public dissemination through network can be benefits, information on health, most effective if it comprises local consumer and credit information, and content. We will discuss here importance information related to employment and of local content and creation of local training. If a woman in the village has content in India. Then we will look at access to the Internet, she will not creation of information that is demand- necessarily be able to use the information driven. There will be short pieces of to improve her child’s health because information on creation of rural trying to get information from the knowledge repositories and local Internet is like drinking from a fire hose websites, databases, bulletin boards and – you don’t know the source of the e-mail lists. water. 8.6.1 Information Production and Local content is a big challenge for an Dissemination through Network adult education centre. A multi-nation Let us first discuss study by the International Institute for a) how important is local content and Communication and Development or b) generation of local content in India. IICD (2002) suggests that “easier access to globalized knowledge is fast turning a) Importance of Local Content us into ‘consumers’ of distant and An education centre can provide people potentially irrelevant information”. in the community with access to Local content, the report says faces computers to send and receive intense competition because big content information. Centre should translate initiatives by other groups tend to push the need to provide people with access their external content onto local to content that they can use in their communities. In the same vein, another daily lives. Persons may need such IICD report suggests developing countries practical content as adult literacy are being invaded by foreign ideas and 89
  10. 10. S GANGULY values that may undermine or to sustainability of the adult education overwhelm local cultures. setup. b) Generation of Local Content in India 8.6.2 Demand Driven Information Here is a case study of a village Production in the Warna Wired knowledge centre. It shows how staff Village Project dealt with the issues of local, relevance The project area is a cluster of 70 and language. The centres, established villages in the Sangli district of in Pondicherry on the southeast coast Maharashtra, India. The project has of India by the M.S. Swaminathan been jointly implemented by the Research Foundation (MSSRF), Government of India through the demonstrated ingenuity, creativity and National Informatics Centre, the sensitivity in developing their Government of Maharashtra and the information products. In one case, Warna Cooperative Society. This project coastal villages were highly dependent was initiated to serve the information on weather and tides information. Many needs of the farmers for different crop fishermen were not literate. Village cultivation practices of major crops, Knowledge Centre downloaded whether sugarcane cultivation practices, pest reports from digital network and disease control, marketing information and converted that to information, dairy and sugarcane audio. The audio versions were then processing information, and other played on loudspeakers in the open air. agriculture-related services. In addition, project volunteers in the Apart from information retrieval, there villages built their own information are two client based applications to serve resources in the center to complement the farmers’ needs through the the external databases thereby providing computer booths installed in each local and localized information on village: (a) the Dairy Information Centre; agricultural, health and government and (b) the Sugarcane Information programs for low-income people, for System. example, a directory of general and crop insurance schemes; a list of about 130 In the Dairy Information System, schemes available as entitlements to information on all farmers who are part rural families; a directory of hospitals of the dairy system is maintained. Other and medical practitioners in Pondicherry details available to members of the dairy – grouped according to their co-operatives include the quantity of specialisations; bus and train schedules milk supplied by each farmer, fat covering Pondicherry and two nearby content, billing information and credit towns; and pest management details. This information is maintained information for the sugarcane crop. and updated at the central database on a daily basis. The content in the above cases is based on Dagron (2001) and Harris (2003). In the Sugarcane Information System, information on shareholders is Information must be locally relevant and maintained. There are about 200-350 respond to the information needs of the shareholders in each village for the potential users. In such ways these sugarcane crop. This system maintains services shall contribute to social and details of the cultivation schedule, the 90 economic community development and quantity harvested and supplied to the
  11. 11. society, deductions effected by the answer, the discussions are kept in a COMPUTER NETWORKS society towards, credit, and the net database. Camps such as livestock income due to the farmers. This data management, credit management, and is available with respect to each women’s health are being organized. shareholder. The activities of the region are captured in Thagaval Thinnai (information Booth operators of Paragoam, courtyard) where information on Bhairwadi, Kuralap and Panhala report agriculture and horticulture prices in the that an average of 20-25 farmers visit regular local markets, weekly markets the computer booths every day for and informal markets, social and cultural information on crop cultivation practices events, training programmes, visits of and disease control, marketing, dairy experts, local entertainment, weather and sugarcane billing details, etc. reports, local employment opportunities, These excerpts are from K Bedi, P J and news from regional newspapers are Singh, and S. Srivastava (2001). regularly given and supplied through local area network. Moreover prints-out of 8.6.3 Creating Rural Knowledge some of the location-specific and very Repositories vital information are being pasted at Tele-centers in Kannivadi and the public places every day. Thus, Samiarpatty developed a database on Tagaval Thinnai is available both in indigenous knowledge on issues such as ‘online’ form as well as in print form. livestock management, integrated pest The animators collect the information management, the practices of the through formal channels such as web farmers in cultivating 42 crops focusing sites and informal channels such as on pest and disease management. contacting the traders. Some of the A database on the local expertise has main sources of the information are been developed in the form of a rural agricultural extension agencies, the yellow page. The information consists block development office, commission of consisting of names, addresses and agents of the flower market at Nilakotai information of various village professions (a market town), Gandhigram, a such as blacksmiths, carpenters, deemed university etc. The information plumbers, masons, nurses, traditional is collected and provided on a daily basis. healers, etc. Similarly, a local consultant P. Thamizoli and K. Balasubramanian, has been employed to gather Information Management and Knowledge information about all the development Empowerment: MSSRF Tele-centers in programmes in the region. This South India, The Journal of Development database would provide the information Communication December 2001. regarding the objectives of the programs, eligibility for participation, 8.6.4 Local Websites etc. Details of experts in agriculture and A local website with the help of users of health are also kept in the tele-centers. adult education centre can guide to Camps are organized where experts and relevant information. The website can, villagers meet and discuss various issues on the one hand, be a medium for in specific subjects. These discussions introducing information on the are captured in audiocassettes and video community with information provided photography. In a form of question- by the community. On the other hand, 91 the website will provide links to useful
  12. 12. S GANGULY information sources and present for their software to NGOs or information that has been interpreted community groups upon request, so if into the local languages. The website a NGO is in need of software, it can can further link to online distance contact the producer. learning material and/or local databases. Example of a community- 8.6.6 Bulletin Boards based website is: Bulletin boards present an easy-to-realize method of presenting gathered 8.6.5 Databases information to a wide number of The tele-center manager in collaboration community members. Bulleting boards with project volunteers can build their could be placed outside the adult own databases. These shall be locally education centre building and/or generated and, hence, locally and different focal points within the personally relevant information sources community and be updated regularly. that can include details of government programs for low-income rural families 8.6.7 Email Lists (dependent on the context of the Email lists allow the posting of particular community); local market questions, receiving of news updates, prices for grain; local farming families; and sharing of experiences via email a directory of insurance plans for both within a group that you define. An email crops and input prices; pest list is identified by a single name, such management plans for local products; a as mail- A message directory of local hospitals, medical is sent to the mailing list name and it is practitioners and their specialities; a automatically forwarded or broadcast to regional timetable for buses and trains; all the addresses in the list. and a directory of local veterinarians, These mailing lists can be extremely cattle, and animal husbandry programs, helpful in connecting users of adult etc. literacy programmes to share Databases could further include a experiences. For example, Chasquinet, collection of application software and an Ecuador-based NGO, hosts a tele- reference material, such as CD ROMs center in Latin America and the relevant for responding to local needs. Caribbean. Most software producers donate license Activity 8.4 Visit a community-based website: and find out if it contains information provided by the community. Does it provide links to useful information sources and present information in the local language? Also look out if the website provides link to online distance learning material. Write a short not of 200 words on what you have discovered after visiting the website: 8.7 Participation in Application Network The participation in collaborative from and to rural communities, 92 networks enables information to flow facilitates dialogue between
  13. 13. communities, intermediaries and households to the center of decision- COMPUTER NETWORKS development organizations, fosters co- making. The approach also builds the ordination of national and local capacity of farm households to development efforts and overcomes collectively assess, decide, plan, physical barriers to knowledge and implement, manage and be responsible information sharing. Networks provide for their own development on a information and help regarding continued “doing and learning process”. particular topics, as well as access to The approach also enhances the the Internet, mail connections, radio relationship of all stakeholders involved connections, and e-mail. Generally, in rural development. It includes the these applications use inexpensive store- cooperation and collaboration of and-forward systems to provide government and non-governmental information on agriculture, public health, organizations with the farm medicine, and the environment. communities. URL: 8.7.1 Example for an Application TARAhaat is a project with the goal of Network: FarmNet bringing information and Marketing Farmer Information Network (FarmNet) Services using e-business to rural India. is a network of rural people and Tarahaat acts as a social enterprise to supporting intermediary organizations, promote effective e-commerce. Users such as extension services, using ICTs are able to buy seeds, machinery, spare and conventional communication media parts, and even household items. to facilitate the generation, gathering Tarahaat puts a special focus on and exchange of knowledge and responding to people’s needs, making information. Operated by farmers and the network highly participatory and their organisations, FarmNet links responsive. farmers to each other and to the URL: resources and services, they need to improve their livelihoods. Design of a 8.7.2 Community Education FarmNet with the Uganda National As adult educators, PALDIN learners may Farmers’ Association found that the best be interested in encouraging increased approach was to enhance existing use of community resources and seeking communication efforts (face-to-face, out volunteers to augment the basic local radio, publications) with the use educational program. They may like to of simple e-mail based communication develop educational partnerships among system for information on markets, schools and public and private service improved agricultural technologies and providers, business and industry, and weather conditions. civic and social service organization. FAO, FarmNet brochure, 2000 URL of FarmNet : By organizing programs and activities sd/2001/KN1008-cn.htm that serve all ages and populations, a community school encourages disparate FarmNet Asia (China, India, Indonesia, elements of the community to come Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand together to work for common goals. It and Vietnam). provides a physical setting as well as an The FARM approach has successfully organizational structure for school demonstrated that it can bring the farm community collaboration. 93
  14. 14. S GANGULY 8.8 Conclusion Unit 8 provides details about various types of computer networks such as LAN, MAN and WAN, how they are online and print is also of advantage. useful. It explains about different The creation of a rural knowledge components of network, what is repository helps in many ways starting Internet, and tells about some e-mail from farming and weather information lists of sites related to adult education, to awareness about health and importance of Internet, its benefits and developmental programmes. advantages, etc. From the different Participation in application-oriented case studies you learn about the use of networking provides resources, service instructional technology in reaching out and possibilities of improvement in to those who we cannot easily reach livelihood. As an adult educator you need and how information can be generated to relate education to development and and disseminated at the local level. The work on livelihood issues of adult case studies show that it is always learners. In this context, networking beneficial to generate locally relevant helps in bridging the gap between adult information and make a database of this educators and adult learners. information. To have these data in an 8.9 Apply What You Have Learnt Have you ever witnessed or participated Major Crops of the area and its in an application-oriented network? If cultivation yes, share it with your colleagues. If Pest and disease Management by not, then open the Internet and in the Farmers website address given in the unit search Names, addresses and information for it. Write down the information you of various occupation-holders of the received. Design and propose to develop village such an application-oriented network Heath Centres, their timings, etc keeping in view the needs and demands of adult learners in your region. Various developmental Programs, their contact persons and help lines, Create a Rural Knowledge Repository in if any your area by including some of the points Loan Facilities from bank and the given below. name and address of their contact persons 94