Networking Basics Presentation


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Networking Basics Presentation

  1. 1. Networking Basics Comm 272: Digital Technologies
  2. 2. Why bother networking? <ul><ul><li>Networking – any method of connecting your PC to another computer system or common device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN, WAN, peer-to-peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing (MP3, common data), applications, email, printing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online/LAN gaming </li></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  3. 3. Basic hardware required for networking <ul><li>Computer system or device with a network card </li></ul><ul><li>Network (Ethernet) cable </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless (later) </li></ul>Networking Basics
  4. 4. IP Addresses <ul><li>Internet Protocol Address </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of 4 groupings of numbers used to identify computers on a network or the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Only certain groups of IP addresses can talk together, based on how equipment is configured. </li></ul><ul><li>IP Address is a unique identifier of a single device (computer, printer, etc) on a network </li></ul><ul><li>Can be static or dynamic </li></ul>Networking Basics
  5. 5. What’s a Subnet? <ul><li>As mentioned, a network is a group of computers configured to communicate with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>A subnet allows for multiple groups within a network to be further refined. </li></ul><ul><li>A subnet allows for all Lab computers to be separated from Faculty computers, and all Student computers to be separated as well. </li></ul><ul><li>So why separate? Security, speed, manageability </li></ul>Networking Basics
  6. 6. What’s a Gateway? <ul><li>The device that directs a device’s inbound and outbound traffic. </li></ul><ul><li>Represented by an IP address. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be any of several types of devices, but it must be on the same network as the device in question. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  7. 7. Networking Equipment <ul><ul><li>Network Card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firewall </li></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  8. 8. Connection and Transfer Speeds Explained <ul><li>Data speeds measured in kilobits per second (kbps) and megabits per second (mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Modem speeds range from 14.4kbps to 28.8 to 33.6 to 56 </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN (older digital dialup method) consists of paired channels of 64kbps lines, allowing for up to 128k transmit and receive. </li></ul><ul><li>Cable modem speeds, typically, range from 500k to 2.5mb </li></ul><ul><li>DSL speeds vary, based on the type of service desired. However, typical is between 256kbps and 1.5mbps. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  9. 9. Connection and Transfer Speeds Explained <ul><li>LAN – Local area network speeds are based on the types of equipment used. Wired networks support speeds at 10Mb, 100Mb, and 1000Mb (1gb). </li></ul><ul><li>WAN – Wide area networks support whatever speeds are supported by Internet Service Providers, anywhere from dialup at 56K to OC192 at 9.95Gb. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  10. 10. WAN Connection and Transfer Speeds <ul><ul><ul><li>Dialup – 28.8 to 56k </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN – 64 to 128k </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable – 500k to 2.5mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSL – 256k to 1.5mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T1 – 1.54mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T3 – 45mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC1 – 52mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC3 – 155mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC48 – 2.4gb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC192 – 9.95gb </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  11. 11. WAN Connection and Transfer Speeds <ul><ul><ul><li>Dialup – 28.8k to 56k </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN – 64k to 128k </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable – 500k to 2.5mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSL – 256k to 1.5mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T1 – 1.54mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T3 – 45mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC1 – 52mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC3 – 155mb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC48 – 2.4gb </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OC192 – 9.95gb </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  12. 12. Network Equipment Explained <ul><li>Network Card – the component that is attached to the computer, and allows a cable to be connected. Without a network card (or NIC, network interface card), a computer cannot be configured for networking, which includes an IP address, subnet, and gateway. </li></ul><ul><li>Network Cable – any type of cable (most commonly Ethernet), that connects to a device’s network port on one end, and to a networking device such as a hub or switch on the other end. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  13. 13. Network Equipment Explained <ul><li>Hub – a hub is a ‘dumb’ device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP address. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hub is a network device, but typically does not have an IP address. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A hub doesn’t think about what it receives. It simply forwards data on to all connected devices. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slower, older technology. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not good for high-traffic environments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support speeds of 10mbps or 10/100mbps </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  14. 14. Network Equipment Explained <ul><li>Switch – a switch is a ‘smarter’ device that allows computers to connect to each other based on IP addresses. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A switch is a network device, and oftentimes will have an IP address for management and configuration. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A switch processes everything it receives, and keeps a record of all devices connected to any of its ports. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A switch analyzes incoming traffic (known as packets), and sends that traffic to only the intended recipient device. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switches are much faster, efficient, secure, and expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support speeds of 10/100/1000mbps </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  15. 15. Network Equipment Explained <ul><li>Router – a router is a device that connects networks to other networks, and allows these different network to talk to each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Built on ‘route tables’ of where other networks are connected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet is connected by routers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially, connects a LAN to another network </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  16. 16. Network Equipment Explained <ul><li>Firewall – a firewall is a device used for security purposes, to control what types of traffic are allowed into and out of a network. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identifies services available on the inside of a protected network, and directs that traffic to the appropriate destination. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directs web traffic to a web server, email traffic to an email server, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents any other access to other devices or services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP includes a basic personal firewall as part of the NIC configuration </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  17. 17. Networking Basics
  18. 18. Networking Basics
  19. 19. VPN – Virtual Private Network <ul><li>VPNs allow devices to connect to networks over secure ‘tunnels’ </li></ul><ul><li>Allows a computer or network of computers to connect to a remote network as if it were physically connected. </li></ul><ul><li>VPNs operate over Internet connections </li></ul>Networking Basics
  20. 20. Home Networking <ul><li>Home networking is based on the same principles </li></ul><ul><li>A computer has an IP address and connects to a hub or switch </li></ul><ul><li>The hub or switch connects to a router </li></ul><ul><li>The router is connected to the Internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>Allows multiple computers to access each other, as well as share the same internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>Some home-networking routers have switch and firewall technology built in, for ease of setup, configuration, and use. </li></ul><ul><li>Very easy to configure, and most ISPs now support use of home networking. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  21. 21. Wireless Networking <ul><li>Built on the same principles of ‘wired’ networks, but the equipment used is different. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Routers, Access Points, and Wireless Network Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol used is 802.11a/b/g – each has different properties </li></ul>Networking Basics
  22. 22. Wireless Networking <ul><li>802.11b details – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular, cheapest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 11Mbps transfer speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range of between 100 and 150 feet, assuming no obstacles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Hotspots (ie, Starbucks, etc) operate on 802.11b </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  23. 23. Wireless Networking <ul><li>802.11a details – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively new technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 54Mbps transfer speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More costly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter range, between 25-75 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No public hotspots at this time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not compatible with other wireless protocols </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  24. 24. Wireless Networking <ul><li>802.11g details – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growing popularity, fairly inexpensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newest home wireless networking technology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 54Mbps transfer speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Range of between 100 and 150 feet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compatible with 802.11b access points at 11Mbps speed </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  25. 25. Wireless Networking <ul><li>Different configuration requirements include Network name (SSID), Network Key, and WEP (if used) for security and access control. </li></ul><ul><li>http:// – for more info on wireless and home networking devices and options. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  26. 26. Other Thoughts… <ul><li>The Internet is really the interconnection of many individual networks </li></ul><ul><li>When you connect to a website, you’re connecting to a network in a different location. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  27. 27. Other Thoughts… DNS <ul><li>DNS – Domain Name Service associates an Internet domain name with an IP address. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You can connect to a website by a name (ie. ) or by an IP address (ie. ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Email works the same way. Send an email to [email_address] rather than [email_address] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What if I change networks? </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  28. 28. Other Thoughts… DNS <ul><li>Wait! Why are those numbers different when they’re both </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because they’re set up to be different servers: www and mail. If they were the same server, they’d both be the same IP address. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> = </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> = </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain name is a ‘friendly’, easy way to access a website. </li></ul>Networking Basics
  29. 29. Other Thoughts… Network Authentication <ul><li>Network Access and Authentication </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Networks are groups of computers with access to shared, common resources. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These networks can operate in a peer-to-peer capacity using workgroups, or a Domain model for enhanced resource security and access control. </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  30. 30. Other Thoughts… Network Authentication <ul><li>Workgroup connections are based on local PC security configurations. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you want access to my music, I need to give you a password to get into the folder where I keep them. </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  31. 31. Other Thoughts… Network Authentication <ul><li>A Domain is a group of computers and users with access to common shared resources, also a part of the domain, where access security is managed from a common location, a Domain Controller. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To get access to a domain resource, first you need a domain account. Then an administrator will assign your account access to specific resources. </li></ul></ul></ul>Networking Basics
  32. 32. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>Networking Basics
  33. 33. Networking Basics