Networking Basics – 1. Why bother networking? a. Networking ...
Networking Basics –
1. Why bother networking?
a. Networking – any method of connecting your PC to another computer
system or common device.
b. LAN, WAN, peer-to-peer
c. File sharing (MP3, common data), applications, email, printing
d. Online/LAN gaming
2. Basic hardware required for networking
a. Computer system with a network card
b. Network (Ethernet) cable
3. IP Addresses
a. Internet Protocol Address
b. Made up of 4 groupings of numbers used to identify computers on a
network or the internet.
c. Only certain groups of IP addresses can talk together, based on how
equipment is configured.
d. IP Address is a unique identifier of a single computer system on a network
e. Can be static or dynamic
4. What’s a subnet?
a. As mentioned, a network is a group of computers configured to
communicate with each other.
b. A subnet allows for multiple groups within a network to be further refined.
c. A subnet allows for all Lab computers to be separated from Faculty
computers, and all Student computers to be separated as well.
d. So why separate? Security, speed, manageability.
5. What is a gateway?
a. The device that directs a device’s inbound and outbound traffic.
b. Represented by an IP address.
c. Can be any of several types of devices, but it must be on the same network
as the device in question.
6. Networking equipment
a. Network Card
b. Network Cable
7. Transmit and receive speeds explained
a. Data speeds measured in kilobits per second (kbps) and megabits per
b. Modem speeds range from 14.4kbps to 28.8 to 33.6 to 56
c. ISDN (older digital dialup method) consists of paired channels of 64kbps
lines, allowing for up to 128k transmit and receive.
d. Cable modem speeds, typically, range from 500k to 2.5mb
e. DSL speeds vary, based on the type of service desired service. However,
typical is between 256kbps and 1.5mbps.
f. LAN – Local area network speeds are based on the types of equipment
used. Wired networks support speeds at 10mb, 100mb, and 1000mb
g. WAN – Wide area networks support whatever speeds are supported by
Internet Service Providers, anywhere from dialup at 56k to OC48 at 2.4gb.
i. Dialup – 28.8 to 56k
ii. ISDN – 64 to 128k
iii. Cable – 500k to 2.5mb
iv. DSL – 256k to 1.5mb
v. T1 – 1.54mb
vi. T3 – 45mb
vii. OC1 – 52mb
viii. OC3 – 155mb
ix. OC48 – 2.4gb
x. OC192 – 9.95gb
8. Network Equipment Explained
a. Network Card – the component that is attached to the computer, and
allows a cable to be connected. Without a network card (or NIC, network
interface card), a computer cannot be configured for networking, which
includes an IP address, subnet, and gateway.
b. Network Cable – any type of cable (most commonly Ethernet), that
connects to a device’s network port, and to a networking device such as a
hub or switch.
c. Hub – a hub is a ‘dumb’ device that allows computers to connect to each
other based on IP address.
i. A hub is a network device, but typically does not have an IP
ii. A hub doesn’t think about what it receives. It simply forwards
data on to all connected devices.
iii. Slower, older technology.
iv. Not good for high-traffic environments
v. Support speeds of 10mbps or 10/100mbps
d. Switch – a switch is a ‘smarter’ device that allows computers to connect to
each other based on IP addresses.
i. A switch is a network device, and typically does have an IP
address for management and configuration.
ii. A switch processes everything it receives, and keeps a record of all
devices connected to any of its ports.
iii. A switch analyzes incoming traffic (known as packets), and sends
that traffic to only the intended recipient device.
iv. Switches are much faster, efficient, secure, and expensive
v. Support speeds of 10/100/1000mbps
e. Router – a router is a device that connects networks to other networks, and
allows these different network to talk to each other.
i. Built on ‘route tables’ of where other networks are
ii. Internet is connected by routers
iii. Essentially, connects a LAN to another network
f. Firewall – a firewall is a device used for security purposes, to control what
types of traffic are allowed into and out of a network.
i. Identifies services available on the inside of a protected network,
and directs that traffic to the appropriate destination.
ii. Directs web traffic to a web server, email traffic to an email server,
iii. Prevents any other access to other devices or services
iv. Windows XP includes a basic personal firewall as part of the NIC
9. VPN – Virtual Private Network
a. VPNs allow devices to connect to networks over secure ‘tunnels’
b. Allows a computer or network of computers to connect to a remote
network as if it were physically connected.
c. VPNs operate over Internet connections
10. Home networking
a. Home networking is based on the same principles described above
b. A computer has an IP address and connects to a hub or switch
c. The hub or switch connects to a router
d. The router is connected to the Internet connection
e. Allows multiple computers to access each other, as well as share the same
f. Some home-networking routers have switch and firewall technology built
in, for ease of setup, configuration, and use.
g. Very easy to configure, and most ISPs now support use of home
11. Wireless networking
a. Built on the same principles of ‘wired’ networks, but the equipment used
b. Wireless Routers, Access Points, and Wireless Network Cards
c. Protocol used is 802.11a/b/g – each has different properties
d. 802.11b details –
i. Most popular, cheapest
ii. Up to 11Mbps transfer speed
iii. Range of between 100 and 150 feet, assuming no obstacles
iv. Public Hotspots (ie, Starbucks, etc) operate on 802.11b
e. 802.11a details –
i. Relatively new technology
ii. Up to 54Mbps transfer speed
iii. More costly
iv. Shorter range, between 25-75 feet
v. No public hotspots at this time
vi. Not compatible with other wireless protocols
f. 802.11g details –
i. Growing popularity, fairly inexpensive
ii. Up to 54Mbps transfer speed
iii. Range of between 100 and 150 feet
iv. Compatible with 802.11b access points at 11Mbps speeds
g. Different configuration requirements include Network name (SSID),
Network Key, and WEP (if used) for security and access control.
h. http://www.linksys.com – for more info on wireless and home networking
devices and options.
1. The Internet is really the interconnection of many individual networks
2. DNS – Domain Name Service associates an Internet domain name with an IP
a. You can connect to a website by a name (ie., www.vanguard.edu) or by an
IP address (ie., http://126.96.36.199)
b. Email works the same way. Send an email to Brandon@vanguard.edu
rather than Brandon@188.8.131.52
c. Wait! Why are those numbers different when they’re both vanguard.edu?
i. Because they’re set up to be different servers: www and mail. If
they were the same server, they’d both be the same IP address.
d. Domain name is a ‘friendly’, easy way to access a website.
3. Network Access and Authentication
a. Networks are groups of computers with access to shared resources.
b. These networks can operate in a peer-to-peer capacity using workgroups,
or a Domain model for enhanced resource security and access control.
c. Workgroup connections are based on local PC security configurations.
i. If you want access to my music, I need to give you a password to
get into the folder where I keep them.
d. A Domain is a group of computers and users with access to common
shared resources, also a part of the domain, where access security is
managed from a common location, a Domain Controller.
i. To get access to a domain resource, first you need a domain
account. Then an administrator will assign your account access to