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Network Essentials I Technical Support Advisory Consortium

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Network Essentials I Technical Support Advisory Consortium

  1. 1. Network Essentials I Technical Support Advisory Consortium Scott Genung, TNSS
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>ISUnet Design Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of Access </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>describe the ISUnet network model in understandable terms </li></ul><ul><li>describe the different types of access users have to electronic resources on ISUnet </li></ul><ul><li>describe some basic IP definitions for connectivity to ISUnet </li></ul><ul><li>describe some basic network tools to aid in problem reporting or troubleshooting </li></ul>
  4. 4. ISUnet Design Overview
  5. 5. ISUnet Design Overview <ul><li>LAN (Local Area Network) </li></ul><ul><li>CAN (Campus Area Network) </li></ul><ul><li>WAN (Wide Area Network) </li></ul><ul><li>RAS (Remote Access Services) </li></ul>
  6. 6. ISUnet Design Overview <ul><li>LAN (Local Area Network) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for ISUnet, a LAN is defined as a network environment that provides direct connectivity for the end user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300+ access switches throughout ISUnet provide 13,000+ devices with ethernet connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes connectivity for desktop computers, laptops, notebooks, servers (of all sizes), PDAs, peripherals, etc </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. ISUnet Design Overview <ul><li>CAN (Campus Area Network) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also known as the network backbone or core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a CAN is defined as a network environment that provides high performance interconnectivity for local area networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20+ group switches are used to connect multiple access switches within a building (unless there’s a distribution switch) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 distribution switches provide connectivity for multiple access or group switches and are attached to multiple core switches </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. ISUnet Design Overview <ul><li>CAN (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 core switches are interconnected in a complete mesh for scalability and survivability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides routing for IP, AppleTalk, and IPX </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. ISUnet Design Overview <ul><li>WAN (Wide Area Network) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an environment that provides inter-connectivity between networks using a 3 rd party service provider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes access to and from the public Internet, residential broadband, peering connectivity, and access to remote affiliated networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>routers used to direct traffic from CAN to public Internet or private WAN circuits </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. ISUnet Design Overview <ul><li>WAN (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAT (Network Address Translation) engines to provide translation between private and public IP address space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QoS (Quality of Service) appliances to provide bandwidth reservation, shaping, and priority policies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. ISUnet Design Overview <ul><li>RAS (Remote Access Services) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides access to a data network through the public or campus telephone network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user must authenticate to directory using PAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>authenticated user is served IP address over PPP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 minute (438-8200 or 8-8200) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6 hour (438-8210 or 8-8210) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Forms of Access
  13. 17. Forms of Access <ul><li>private access network </li></ul><ul><li>public access network </li></ul><ul><li>residential broadband </li></ul><ul><li>ResNet </li></ul><ul><li>wireless </li></ul><ul><li>dialup </li></ul><ul><li>apartment complex networks </li></ul><ul><li>from the Internet </li></ul>
  14. 18. Forms of Access <ul><li>private access network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide access for stationary network devices such as desktop computers, servers, printers, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide enhanced access for servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>static public IP address, static private IP address, or served private IP address through DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Forms of Access <ul><li>public access network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide access for mobile network devices such as laptop and notebook computers, PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant), etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not for servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>user authentication (must be affiliated with the University) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>served private IP address through DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technologies such as switched ethernet and wireless ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>locations include Bone, Milner, and all dining centers </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Forms of Access <ul><li>residential broadband </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide dedicated (always on) access to local or Internet services to users affiliated with the University from their residence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technologies include ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) service, cable, wireless Internet, and satellite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basis for telecommuting access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dependence upon a 3 rd party access provider (DHCP with private IP addressing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University as an ISP or 3 rd party ISP (with VPN) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Forms of Access <ul><li>ResNet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>port per pillow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>registration model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP with private IP addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5,000+ wired jacks in select residence halls by spring 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7,300+ wired jacks by spring 2003 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Forms of Access <ul><li>wireless </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide mobile access to campus or Internet based services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pilot expected to last into fall semester </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(LEAP or TLS) authentication and (dWEP) encryption </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Forms of Access <ul><li>dialup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides access to the campus network and the public Internet through the campus or public telephone system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>narrowband (53Kb/s or less using V.90) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Forms of Access <ul><li>apartment complex networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>networks developed and maintained by management companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of 3 rd party ISPs (such as A5 networks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peering circuit for dedicated connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VPN client for secure access </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. Forms of Access <ul><li>from the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accessing campus resources from a 3 rd party ISP or external enterprise network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access public services such as campus public web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use VPN client to access restricted resources on campus including Windows and Novell domains </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. Connectivity
  23. 28. Connectivity <ul><li>physical connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>obtaining an ethernet link state </li></ul><ul><li>statically defining IP properties </li></ul><ul><li>learning IP properties through DHCP </li></ul><ul><li>blocking DDNS </li></ul><ul><li>registering Internet host names with DNS </li></ul><ul><li>registering NetBIOS names with WINS </li></ul>
  24. 29. Connectivity <ul><li>physical connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RJ-45 jacks can be ordered or activated from TNSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RJ45 jack needs UTP-5e (category 5 enhanced) patch cable (or better) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UDC jack needs a 10BaseT balun and UTP-5e patch cable (or better) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UTP cables and baluns can be ordered from STSS </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Connectivity <ul><li>obtaining an ethernet link state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>duplex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>auto for clients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>full duplex for servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>link speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>check troubleshooting documentation on TNSS web site for help </li></ul></ul>
  26. 31. Connectivity <ul><li>statically defining IP properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for NT, 2K, XP </li></ul></ul>
  27. 32. Connectivity <ul><li>learning IP properties through DHCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for NT, 2K, XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gateway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subnet mask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WINS servers </li></ul></ul>
  28. 34. Connectivity <ul><li>blocking DDNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet name space is managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uncheck Register this connection’s address in DNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>register address as a static host name if needed </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. Connectivity <ul><li>registering Internet host names </li></ul>
  30. 36. Connectivity <ul><li>registering with WINS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NetBIOS name and IP address are registered with primary WINS server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peering WINS servers will replicate address pair </li></ul></ul>
  31. 38. Troubleshooting
  32. 39. Troubleshooting <ul><li>ipconfig, winipcfg, ifconfig </li></ul><ul><li>ping </li></ul><ul><li>traceroute </li></ul><ul><li>nbtstat </li></ul>
  33. 40. Troubleshooting <ul><li>ipconfig </li></ul><ul><ul><li>describes addressing for interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>served or defined address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gateway and mask </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNS and WINS servers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98, NT, 2K, XP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>winipcfg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 95, ME </li></ul></ul><ul><li>open transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MacOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ifconfig </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul>
  34. 42. Troubleshooting <ul><li>what are we looking for with ipconfig? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what is the media state? (connected or disconnected) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the IP address, mask, or gateway valid? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the DNS or WINS server address valid? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if using DHCP, is the lease period valid? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the name valid? </li></ul></ul>
  35. 43. Troubleshooting <ul><li>ping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to determine the reachability of a destination IP address and the responsiveness of the path </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is not a reliable tool for measuring performance because of QoS policies that many organizations have for ICMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should see between 1 and 30ms on campus depending upon load using 32 byte packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should see between 20 and 80ms from ADSL using 32 byte packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can see response times exceed 300ms over the public Internet using 32 byte packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>response times will dramatically increase for much larger packet sizes </li></ul></ul>
  36. 45. (this ping was run from an ADSL circuit)
  37. 46. Troubleshooting <ul><li>what are we looking for with ping? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the destination host, network, or protocol reachable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is there evidence of packet loss or delay (subjective)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the packet loss or delay variable or consistent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are other devices experiencing the same problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing gateway, on-campus, and off-campus access </li></ul></ul>
  38. 47. Troubleshooting <ul><li>traceroute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to trace record the route between source and destination IP addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides a sample of response times between the source and each hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can tell you when a host, network, or protocol is unreachable (ie: !H, !N, or !P) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tracert under Windows 95, 98, NT, 2K, ME, XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>traceroute under all flavors of Unix </li></ul></ul>
  39. 49. www.samspade.org
  40. 50. Troubleshooting <ul><li>what are we looking for with traceroute? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the destination host, network, or protocol reachable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is there evidence of packet loss or delay (subjective) at any hop between source and destination? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the packet loss or delay variable or consistent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are other devices experiencing the same problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing gateway, on-campus, and off-campus access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testing connectivity from off-campus to campus </li></ul></ul>
  41. 51. Troubleshooting <ul><li>nbtstat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to troubleshoot NetBIOS/IP connectivity from a Windows OS </li></ul></ul>
  42. 56. Troubleshooting <ul><li>what are we looking for with nbtstat? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the NetBIOS name of the local device registered with WINS? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are we able to resolve multiple NetBIOS names from WINS? </li></ul></ul>
  43. 57. Conclusion
  44. 58. Conclusion <ul><li>many resources available for assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outages and Alerts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>isunet-l listserv </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TSAC public website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TNSS public website </li></ul></ul>
  45. 62. Conclusions <ul><li>what other type of information would be of value? </li></ul><ul><li>other questions? </li></ul>

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