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LAN: Software

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LAN: Software

  1. 1. Chapter 9: Local Area Networks: Software and Support Systems
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the main functions of operating systems and network operating systems, and distinguish between the two </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic features of Novell NetWare, Windows NT/2000/2003, Unix, and Linux network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the Novell NetWare, Windows NT/2000/2003, Unix, and Linux network operating systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Recognize the importance of the network server and the different types of network servers available </li></ul><ul><li>Identify common examples of network utility software and Internet software </li></ul><ul><li>Enumerate the various components of software licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different types of support devices commonly found on local area networks </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Proper support of a local area network requires hardware, software, and miscellaneous support devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important software component: Network operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerous network support programs are also required to support users on a LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Support devices such as hubs, switches, routers, servers, modems, power supplies, and more are also necessary </li></ul>
  5. 5. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Operating system manages all applications and resources in computer </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking OS supports execution of multiple processes at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Network OS is a large, complex program that manages resources common on most local area networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Besides performing standard operating system functions, also called upon for additional functions (refer to next slide) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Network Operating Systems (continued)
  7. 7. Current Network Operating Systems <ul><li>Several popular network operating systems currently exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare versions 3, 4, 5 and 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT, 2000, and 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Novell NetWare <ul><li>Version 3 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular but older version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer supported by Novell (end of 2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User logs onto a particular server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bindery maintains directory system </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Novell NetWare (continued) <ul><li>Version 4 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike version 3, allows single network login </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bindery replaced by powerful NDS database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer supported by Novell (beginning of 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Version 5 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrator uses IP protocol instead of Novell’s proprietary IPX/SPX protocols </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. NetWare Version 6 <ul><li>A client anywhere on the Internet can print and use storage services from a NetWare 6 server without loading a single byte of Novell’s Client32 software </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful Internet printing services (iPrint) make printing nearly idiot-proof </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User clicks on graphical image of floor plan showing printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If user does not have printer driver, it is loaded automatically in background </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. NetWare Version 6 (continued) <ul><li>iFolder : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very effective background application powered by Apache Web Server to “equalize” the documents in each system’s My Documents folder with an identical set on the server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volumes can hold 8 terabytes of data in up to 8 trillion files and can keep 1 million files open concurrently </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Novell NDS (NetWare Directory Services) <ul><li>Novell NDS : Database that maintains information on, and access to, every resource on the network, including users, groups of users, printers, data sets and servers </li></ul><ul><li>Network administrator creates a hierarchical tree structure that represents the layout of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Tree structure is composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational units  composed of further objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaf objects  not composed of further objects </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Novell NDS (continued)
  14. 14. Windows NT Version 4 <ul><li>User interface based on popular Windows operating system, but is NOT the same as Windows 98 or Windows Me </li></ul><ul><li>Full service multi-tasking operating system capable of supporting multiple servers </li></ul><ul><li>NT systems work very well with other Microsoft products </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable if NT can support large systems </li></ul><ul><li>Blue screen of death (BSOD) plagues NT systems </li></ul>
  15. 15. Windows NT Version 4 (continued) <ul><li>Domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of users, servers, and other resources that share account and security information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have from 1 to several hundred domains depending on size of system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every domain has one and only one primary domain controller (PDC) (a server) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrally manages account information and security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each domain should have at least one backup domain controller (BDC) (a server) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Windows NT Version 4 (continued) <ul><li>Single domain model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplest Windows NT domain model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One domain that services every user and resource </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
  18. 18. Windows NT Version 4 (continued) <ul><li>Master domain model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses single domain to exert control over user account information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate resource domains manage resources such as networked printers </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Windows NT Version 4 (continued)
  20. 20. Windows NT Version 4 (continued) <ul><li>Multiple master domain model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses two or more master domains that are joined in two-way trusts to manage many resource domains </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Windows 2000 <ul><li>Updated version of Windows NT network operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Specific versions of 2000 designed to support wide variety of system types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Professional - replaces NT Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Server - replaces Windows NT Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Advanced Server – supports up to 8 procs / 8GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Datacenter Server - supports up to 32 processors and 64GB RAM </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Windows 2000 (continued) <ul><li>Biggest change from NT: Active Directory </li></ul><ul><li>AD is central repository for all objects that make up the enterprise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domains, organizational units, users, groups, computers, printers, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roughly based on X.500 spec, creates a hierarchical tree </li></ul>
  23. 23. Windows 2000 (continued) <ul><li>At top of hierarchical model  single forest of one or more trees </li></ul><ul><li>Must contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one (root) domain, which must contain at least one organizational unit (OU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several other containers (see next slide) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended size limitation of 1 million objects per domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, lab tests have hit 10 million objects without failure </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Windows 2000 (continued)
  25. 25. Windows 2000 (continued) <ul><li>The domain has basically remained the same, but now you can have parent and child domains </li></ul><ul><li>Parent and all child domains are defined as single domain tree, with multiple trees in the same AD and forest </li></ul><ul><li>Domains are named in accordance with the Internet’s DNS standard RFCs 1034 and 1035 </li></ul>
  26. 26. Windows 2000 (continued) <ul><li>Example, the root domain in a tree could be called bigcompany.com </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The marketing child domain could be mktg.bigcompany.com , and the production child domain could be prod.bigcompany.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As in NT, you can create Trusts between parent and child domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only with 2000 the trust can be transitive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Windows 2000 (continued) <ul><li>Many still agree that Windows 2000 has a way to go to catch up to NetWare with regards to simplicity of administration </li></ul><ul><li>Nonetheless, NetWare has dropped below 20% of the market while Windows continues to climb (>50%) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Windows 2003 <ul><li>The newest version of Windows network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements to Active Directory, including new management tools </li></ul><ul><li>Capability to interconnect up to 8 Windows servers </li></ul><ul><li>New and improved file and print support services </li></ul><ul><li>Support for IPv6 </li></ul><ul><li>Security improvements </li></ul>
  29. 29. Unix <ul><li>Older but very popular multitasking operating system capable of supporting network operations </li></ul><ul><li>First operating system written in the language C </li></ul><ul><li>Very stable system capable of supporting very large operations </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous versions available from different vendors </li></ul>
  30. 30. Linux <ul><li>Operating system based on the principles of Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Many versions available for free or very small price </li></ul><ul><li>Very stable multitasking operating system </li></ul><ul><li>When incorporated with other free software products, such as the Apache Web Server and Atipa’s BlueBird network management software, this system becomes extremely cost effective and powerful </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary of Network Operating Systems
  32. 32. Network Servers <ul><li>In order to support a network operating system, you need one or more network servers </li></ul><ul><li>Network servers are high-power workstations often with multiple processors, RAID, SCSI, and lots of memory and disk space </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of servers include server appliances, and server blades </li></ul>
  33. 33. Client/Server Networks vs. Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>A clear majority of local area networks are client/server networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server network has one or more network servers supporting the operations of one or more clients, or user workstations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer networks also exist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have servers, but the network relies less on servers and more on communications between workstations </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Utilities <ul><li>Eight of the more common groups of network utility software include: </li></ul><ul><li>Antivirus software Antispam software </li></ul><ul><li>Backup software Network-monitoring software </li></ul><ul><li>Crash protection software Security assessment software </li></ul><ul><li>Remote access software Uninstall software </li></ul>
  35. 35. Internet Software <ul><li>Software necessary to support the server side of Internet connections </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieves web pages and other documents when asked to by a client workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Can interface with a database program allowing users to store and retrieve data via the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary with commercial Internet applications </li></ul>
  36. 36. Software Licensing Agreements <ul><li>Virtually every commercial software program comes with a specific license agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Most licensing agreements specify the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Software installation and use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back-up copies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decompilation </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Software Licensing Agreements (continued) <ul><li>Most licensing agreements also specify the following conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rental statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade availabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copyright restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance agreements </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Software Licensing Agreements (continued) <ul><li>Most licensing agreements come in one of the following forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single user single station license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single user multiple station license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive user license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network server license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site license </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate license </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. LAN Support Devices <ul><li>Other devices necessary for the proper support of a LAN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media converters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstations (including thin client workstations) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. LAN Software In Action: A Small Company Makes a Choice <ul><li>Hannah asks the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the primary uses (applications) of the current system? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some applications work better (or only) with a specific NOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How would the choice of a particular NOS affect maintenance and support? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows is easier to install but harder to maintain NetWare is harder to install but easier to maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux is challenging to install </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. LAN Software in Action: A Small Company Makes a Choice (continued) <ul><li>Are finances an issue in the selection of a NOS? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux offers an extremely attractive cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does the existing system have any unusual hardware or software that might influence the NOS choice? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the network be located in a single location or in multiple locations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NetWare is easier to maintain from remote locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are there any political pressures to select a particular NOS? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home <ul><li>Many decisions to make when installing a wireless LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Which IEEE 802.11 format? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11b? Older, well-tested, but slower (11 Mbps) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a? Newer, faster (54 Mbps), uses higher frequencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11g? Newer, faster (54 Mbps), compatible with 802.11b </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Wireless Networking in Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home (continued) <ul><li>What type of wireless access point do you need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you already have a wired network (with router and modem), all you need is a basic wireless access point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t have a home network but have a high-speed Internet connection, you will need a wireless router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you don’t even have a high-speed Internet connection yet, you might want to consider a wireless gateway </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Wireless Networking in Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home (continued) <ul><li>What type of network operating system do you need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you need something as powerful as Windows 2000/2003 or NetWare? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No, you only need a client operating system such as Windows XP, Apple Mac OS, or Linux </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Summary <ul><li>Operating systems and network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare, Windows NT/2000/2003, Unix, and Linux network operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Network servers </li></ul><ul><li>Network utility software and Internet software </li></ul><ul><li>Software licenses </li></ul><ul><li>Support devices on local area networks </li></ul>

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