LAN and WAN Design: Putting it All Together


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LAN and WAN Design: Putting it All Together

  1. 1. LAN and WAN Design: Putting It All Together Chapter 11
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss general LAN and WAN design issues that include using structured wiring and structured networking </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and implement LAN design principles </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and implement WAN design principles </li></ul>
  3. 3. General LAN and WAN Design Issues <ul><li>Factors that affect design </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing existing topology and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Network management </li></ul><ul><li>Cable installation and replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Structured wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical wiring and structured networking </li></ul><ul><li>Full-duplex communications </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge, router, and hub design issues </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors That Affect a LAN or WAN Design <ul><li>Anticipated network traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy requirements </li></ul><ul><li>User movement </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodating for future growth </li></ul><ul><li>Security considerations </li></ul><ul><li>WAN connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>LAN and WAN costs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Designing for Redundancy
  6. 6. Analyzing Existing Topology and Resources <ul><li>Inspect cable plant </li></ul><ul><li>Compile bandwidth utilization baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>Audit resources </li></ul><ul><li>Review traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Perform network capacity management </li></ul>
  7. 7. Network Management <ul><li>Directly related to network design and topology; some topologies are easier to manage than others </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cable Installation and Replacement
  9. 9. Limitations of Thinnet/Thicknet Cable Plants <ul><li>Cannot meet high bandwidth requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to maintain and troubleshoot </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to expand </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cable Replacement Factors <ul><li>Replacement of legacy cable </li></ul><ul><li>Cable and connector costs </li></ul><ul><li>Installation costs </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Extra cable requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Creation or redesign of wiring closet locations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Guidelines for Installing Cable <ul><li>Use structured wiring and structured networking principles </li></ul><ul><li>Meet or exceed maximum bandwidth required </li></ul><ul><li>Install Category 5 or better UTP cable horizontally to desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Install multimode fiber-optic riser cable between floors </li></ul><ul><li>Follow IEEE specs for cable run distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-mode fiber-optic cable for long runs </li></ul></ul>continued…
  12. 12. Guidelines for Installing Cable <ul><li>Install 802.11 wireless options where appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Install star-based cable plants </li></ul><ul><li>Install only high-quality cable </li></ul><ul><li>Follow all building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Do not exceed 25 pounds of force when pulling twisted-pair cable </li></ul><ul><li>Follow rules for cable bend radius </li></ul>continued…
  13. 13. Guidelines for Installing Cable <ul><li>Leave extra cable at endpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Use a qualified contractor, if desired </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to IEEE specs for cable and installation </li></ul><ul><li>Label cable following EIA/TIA-606 standard </li></ul><ul><li>Ground cable plants </li></ul>
  14. 14. Structured Wiring <ul><li>Cable fans out in horizontal star fashion from centralized chassis switch(es) or hub(s) located in telecommunications rooms or wiring closets </li></ul>
  15. 15. Structured Wiring Requirements <ul><li>Flexible cabling, eg, twisted-pair </li></ul><ul><li>Wiring nodes into physical star </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence to EIA/TIA-568-A / EIA/TIA-568-B standards for horizontal wiring </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized cable plant in chassis hubs or switches </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in intelligence for chassis hubs or switches </li></ul>continued…
  16. 16. Structured Wiring Requirements <ul><li>Ability to isolate hosts/servers on own cable segment </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to provide high-speed links to network devices </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vertical Wiring <ul><li>Cabling and network equipment used between floors </li></ul><ul><li>Physically links telecommunications room(s) on one floor to adjoining floors </li></ul><ul><li>Ties horizontal cable on each floor into logical backbone </li></ul>
  18. 18. Principles of Vertical Wiring <ul><li>Deploy extended star topology between devices </li></ul><ul><li>Use high-speed cable to reduce congestion and because it is not susceptible to EMI and RFI </li></ul><ul><li>Follow EIA/TIA-568-A / EIA/TIA-568-B standards for vertical or backbone cabling </li></ul><ul><li>Use riser rated cable for cable runs through cable ports or vertical shafts </li></ul><ul><li>Install fire-stop material </li></ul>
  19. 19. Structured Networking <ul><li>Use of solid horizontal and vertical wiring design that enables centralizing a network at strategic points </li></ul>
  20. 21. Administrative Capabilities of Structured Networks <ul><li>Centralize or distribute network management </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate vertical and horizontal network design using high-speed communications on the backbone (fat pipes) </li></ul><ul><li>Reconfigure network physically and logically </li></ul>continued…
  21. 22. Administrative Capabilities of Structured Networks <ul><li>Segment network according to workgroup patterns, using VLANs </li></ul><ul><li>Add redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Quickly expand network and introduce new high-speed network options </li></ul><ul><li>Proactively monitor and diagnose problems for quick resolution </li></ul>
  22. 23. Using Full-Duplex Communications <ul><li>Ability to send and receive simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Use in areas of network with high-speed links </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates collisions </li></ul><ul><li>Increases network throughput and reduces number of lost frames </li></ul><ul><li>Most switches employ one of two types of flow control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffering </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Bridge, Router, and Hub Design Issues <ul><li>Bridges and routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-speed networking options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralize network management and troubleshooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce network traffic on all segments </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Advantages of RFIs and RFPs <ul><li>Help organizations clearly define needs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide vendors with understanding of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Enable vendors to show how they would address those needs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide basis for contract negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Supply guidelines for installation process </li></ul>
  25. 26. LAN Design Principles <ul><li>Replace legacy hubs with switches </li></ul><ul><li>Replace older switches that do not offer SNMP compatibility with newer ones that have it </li></ul><ul><li>Connect high-speed workstations to switches </li></ul><ul><li>Connect servers to high-speed switched ports </li></ul><ul><li>Connect integrated or workgroup area switches to high-speed switches </li></ul><ul><li>Connect major department segments or high-speed switches to routers </li></ul>
  26. 27. Walking Through a Design
  27. 31. Locating Hosts and Servers <ul><li>In centralized host or server farms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In different locations throughout the network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces network traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility if disaster destroys one location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can have redundant hosts at different locations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Connecting Hosts and Servers
  29. 33. Building in Redundancy
  30. 34. Interspersed Hosts and Servers
  31. 35. Designing for Multimedia Applications <ul><li>Often include increased bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Often include implementation of Internet Group Management Protocol </li></ul>
  32. 37. Wireless LAN Network Designs <ul><li>Peer-to-peer </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-cell </li></ul>
  33. 38. Peer-to-Peer Design
  34. 40. Maintenance and Support Issues <ul><li>Constant process </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce maintenance, develop schemes to replace aging devices before they become a maintenance problem </li></ul>
  35. 41. WAN Design Principles <ul><li>Devices required at local site to accomplish WAN connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized adapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplexers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless, microwave, and satellite devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATM WAN access switches </li></ul></ul>
  36. 42. Configuring LAN Topology for WAN Connectivity
  37. 43. WAN Connectivity Using a Router
  38. 44. Wireless MANs and WANs <ul><li>Wireless MAN options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless bridge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary infrared design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprietary radio wave options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial microwave </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless WAN options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geosynchronous satellites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEO satellites </li></ul></ul>
  39. 45. WAN Provider Topologies <ul><li>Established by WAN service provider </li></ul><ul><li>Selection depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed and type of interfaces on the LAN </li></ul></ul>
  40. 46. Price Structure <ul><li>Ranges from unlimited usage to limited usage billed per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-related elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly service charges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN connectivity equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User training and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network staff training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network support and troubleshooting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost work time when a connection is down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic equipment upgrade costs </li></ul></ul>
  41. 47. Bandwidth Considerations <ul><li>Choice of service provider depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of bandwidth needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service level agreement (SLA) offered by provider </li></ul></ul>
  42. 48. Vendor and Customer Equipment <ul><li>Equipment varies according to size of vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment should be at more than one location </li></ul>
  43. 49. Chapter Summary <ul><li>General LAN design principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodating for growth and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing the cable plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using structured wiring and structured networking techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using full-duplex communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designing around switches and routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating requests for information and requests for proposals </li></ul></ul>continued…
  44. 50. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Specific LAN design principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to locate hosts and servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to design for multimedia applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless LAN designs and maintenance and support issues </li></ul>continued…
  45. 51. Chapter Summary <ul><li>WAN design principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless MAN and WAN designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAN provider topologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment issues </li></ul></ul>