Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting


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Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting

  1. 1. Windows XP Fault Tolerance and Troubleshooting 70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP Professional
  2. 2. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 1) <ul><li>Set of Windows XP features that ensures the availability of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User’s data via synchronization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery of personalized settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software and application installation and repair </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 2) <ul><li>User data management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using folder redirection , a folder on a user's local machine (i.e. My Documents) can be synchronized with a folder on a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local or network versions of modified files are updated on the other location automatically </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. **** Activity 14-1 **** <ul><li>Synchronizing Files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// course.labmentors.com </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 3) <ul><li>User settings management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent of a roaming profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since a user in a domain network can logon to their personal settings from any machine … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a computer is unavailable or crashes, the user configurations can be transferred to another machine … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or even could be used as an alternative to retaining personal settings when upgrading to a new machine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Microsoft IntelliMirror (Page 4) <ul><li>Software installation and maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If users inadvertently remove applications or system files, or if their systems crash … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W indows I nstaller S ervice (WIS) can be used to rebuild software (applications, updates and even O/S upgrades) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. **** Activity 14-2 **** <ul><li>Download Adobe Acrobat Reader from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Install program Adobe Reader and Google Toolbar </li></ul><ul><li>Run Control Panel </li></ul><ul><li>Select &quot;Add or Remove Programs&quot; applet </li></ul><ul><li>Select < Change/Remove > for &quot;Google Toolbar&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Click < Yes > button to confirm (if necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Follow prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Close dialog windows </li></ul>
  8. 8. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 1) <ul><li>The only Windows XP utility for making backups using media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External hard disks (i.e., network drives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zip or Jaz drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recordable CD-ROM drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical (partitioned or mapped) drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Microsoft IntelliMirror technologies are used only to synchronize to a network folder) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 2) <ul><li>To launch the utility select Start menu  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  Backup </li></ul><ul><li>The two methods to back up data are the Backup Wizard (default option when Backup is executed) and manual backup: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the Advanced Mode hyperlink and the Backup tab to set backup options manually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or click Wizard Mode hyperlink on Welcome tab in Advanced mode to return to the wizard </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 3) <ul><li>In Advanced Mode, the Backup utility main functions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up programs and files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore programs and files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an ASR data set ( A utomated S ystem R ecovery) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 4) <ul><li>Options include backing up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything on computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just specific files and folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System State data including s ystem’s boot files, COM settings, and Registry data </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Microsoft Backup Utility
  13. 13. Microsoft Backup Utility
  14. 14. **** Activity 14-3 **** <ul><li>Backup &quot;My Documents&quot; to &quot;F:&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Delete a file from &quot;My Documents&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Restore files from the backup </li></ul>
  15. 15. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 5) <ul><li>Select Backup Type tab in the T ools  O ptions… dialog: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy backup —backs up all files but does not set off archive bit (not marked as updated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal (or full) backup —backs up all files and sets off archive bit (marked as updated) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily backup —backs up only files that have been created or modified the day of the backup (archive bit not set off) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 6) <ul><li>Backup Type (con.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential backup —backs up only files that have been created or modified since last full or incremental backup (archive bit not set off) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental backup –backs up only files that have been created or modified since last full or incremental backup (archive bit is set off) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 7) <ul><li>Most backup schemes combine the use of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly full backups … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And daily backups of either type i ncremental or differential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incremental daily backups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes daily backup operation run quicker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a longer restore period—restore from last full backup; then perform restores of each incremental backup in order created </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 8) <ul><li>Differential backups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes a longer and longer backup period each day (because archive bit is left on) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires increased storage space on backup media each day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restore time is greatly reduced in comparison with incremental—restore from last full backup; then perform restores of last differential backup </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Microsoft Backup Utility (Page 9) <ul><li>Automated System Recovery (ASR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restores essential system files in event of severe system failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not protect personal data or application configuration settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a backup of only those files essential to the boot process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media set consists of both: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup floppy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One or more backup tapes or other media </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. **** Activity 14-4 **** <ul><li>Set up a scheduled backup: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup files and settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My documents and settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To drive C: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced button: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replace the existing backup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later: Daily (in five minutes) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Preventive Maintenance <ul><li>Several mechanisms to reduce user problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Device Driver Rollback (from Chapter 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinitializes previous driver (was saved by XP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows File Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic Updates and Windows Update (from Chapter 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop Cleanup Wizard </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Windows File Protection (Page 1) <ul><li>Ensures that the correct and uncorrupted version of certain operating system core files is retained on system </li></ul><ul><li>Files include .sys, .dll, .exe and .ocx files, as well as True Type font files </li></ul>
  23. 23. Windows File Protection (Page 2) <ul><li>Protects list of sacred files from changes due to application installation, infection from a virus, or human error </li></ul><ul><li>Works in the background invisibly to users (in most cases) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes system may prompt user for reboot </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Windows File Protection (Page 3) <ul><li>If write operation occurs for one of these files, the resulting file is compared to a database of known files … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The replacement files may be stored in WINDOWSsystem32dllcache, the original Windows XP installation disks or a copy, or a network share </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If there is a mismatch, the altered file is replaced automatically </li></ul>
  25. 25. Windows File Protection (Page 4) <ul><li>S ystem F ile C hecker (SFC) tool: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system software tool that performs the inspection and replacement of monitored files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually executed automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;SFC&quot; command also can be executed manually from the command prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The command also can be used to purge and rebuild the DLLCACHE folder </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Windows File Protection
  27. 27. Desktop Cleanup Wizard <ul><li>Asks permission to remove unused icons from desktop </li></ul><ul><li>Launches automatically every 60 days </li></ul><ul><li>Can be disabled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the Display applet from &quot;Control Panel&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click the < Customize Desktop > button on the Desktop tab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the General tab turn off the &quot;Run Desktop Cleanup Wizard every 60 days&quot; checkbox </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Repairing Windows XP Professional <ul><li>Options for repairing or restoring computer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe Mode (from Chapter 13) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System Restore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency repair process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery Console </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote OS installation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. System Restore (Page 1) <ul><li>Can be used to return O/S to previously saved state … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse system configuration settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Registry changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undo the changes made by installed software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not affect personal files or e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only can be used if system boots </li></ul>
  30. 30. System Restore (Page 2) <ul><li>Automatically creates restoration points during critical system changes </li></ul><ul><li>User also can initiate the creation of a restoration point manually </li></ul><ul><li>To run System Restore: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  System Restore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlled and managed through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System Restore tab of System applet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting on/off and amount of memory used </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. System Restore
  32. 32. Emergency Repair Process (Page 1) <ul><li>For problems caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrupt or missing system files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Startup environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partition boot sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Boot from Windows XP Professional Setup CD (or floppy disk) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Press &quot;R&quot; when prompted to select to Repair Windows XP (do not select reinstall), and &quot;R&quot; again to start emergency repair process </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Emergency Repair Process (Page 2) <ul><li>Select from one of two options: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast repair —automatically attempts to repair problems to Registry, system files, boot volume, and startup environment without user interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual repair —lets user decide to repair the Registry, system files, boot volume, or startup environment </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Emergency Repair Process (Page 3) <ul><li>Reboots automatically if emergency repair process is successful </li></ul><ul><li>If unsuccessful it might be necessary to reinstall Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probably also means reinstalling applications and updates </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Recovery Console (Page 1) <ul><li>For system administrators and expert users, offers more precise control over troubleshooting and repair process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Password for Administrator account must be entered to logon to Recovery Console </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be installed from &quot;i386&quot; folder of Windows XP installation disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the command prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type &quot;winnt32 /cmdcons&quot; to install </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Recovery Console (Page 2) <ul><li>Recovery Console also may be run from the installation CD-ROM … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Press < F8 > when prompted and select Recovery Console from alternate boot menu </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Recovery Console (Page 3) <ul><li>Select &quot;Microsoft Windows Recovery Console&quot; from list of available operating systems when booting </li></ul><ul><li>Type &quot;help&quot; at command prompt for list of available Recovery Console commands </li></ul>
  38. 38. Recovery Console (Page 4) <ul><li>Commands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bootcfg —boot file configuration and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chkdsk —checks and reports on status of every sector on disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disable —to disable a service or driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enable —to enable or start a service or driver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exit —exit Recovery Console and reboot </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Recovery Console (Page 5) <ul><li>Commands (con.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixboot —writes a new partition boot sector onto system partition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fixmbr —repairs the Master Boot Record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>systemroot —sets current folder to system root </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Recovery Console (Page 6) <ul><li>Recovery Console often is a better way than the E mergency R estore P rocess to restore damaged Registry … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registry files in % systemroot %Repair come from installation of Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any changes made after initial installation are lost when using ERP </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Recovery Console (Page 7) <ul><li>To remove Recovery Console: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In &quot;My Computer&quot; be certain that on View tab of Tools menu -> Folder Options: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Show hidden files and folders&quot; is on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Hide protected operating system files&quot; is off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the root directory, delete the cmdcons folder and the cmldr file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the &quot;boot.ini&quot; file delete the command C:CMDCONSBOOTSECT.DAT=&quot;Microsoft Windows Recovery Console&quot; /cmdcons </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. General Principles of Troubleshooting <ul><li>Take action to resolve issues at hand as quickly as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshooting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art and science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematically diagnosing and eliminating problems in computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually fairly tedious process </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Computer Information File <ul><li>C omputer i nformation f ile (CIF) stores detailed information about hardware and software products that make up computer </li></ul><ul><li>Not just a single file but an ever-expanding accumulation of manually created data sheets sorted into related groupings </li></ul><ul><li>Should be stored in protected area and accessible in event of an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Constructing CIF from scratch is a lengthy process </li></ul>
  44. 44. System Information Tool <ul><li>Provides a list of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details of loaded drivers, and whether or not they are signed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRQ's that are assigned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The starting point for creating a CIF </li></ul><ul><li>From Start menu  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  System Information </li></ul>
  45. 45. System Information Tool
  46. 46. **** Activity 15-1 **** <ul><li>View the System Information dialog </li></ul><ul><li>From Start menu  Programs  Accessories  System Tools  System Information </li></ul><ul><li>Expand and review Hardware Resources, Components, Software Environment and Internet Settings </li></ul>
  47. 47. Troubleshooting Tools <ul><li>Troubleshooting tools that are available in Windows XP Professional include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event Viewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Management </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Event Viewer (Page 1) <ul><li>Used to view system messages regarding success and failure of key occurrences </li></ul><ul><li>Information includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System drivers or service failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misbehaving applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessed from Administrative Tools in the &quot;Control Panel&quot; </li></ul>
  49. 49. Event Viewer (System Log)
  50. 50. Event Viewer (Page 2) <ul><li>The logs are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System log —internal processes including hardware and operating system errors, warnings and general information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security log —audit events for failed logons, user right alterations, attempted object accesses with sufficient permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application log —application (software) events and alerts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There may be also Directory service, DNS Service, and File Replication Service logs </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Event Viewer (Page 3) <ul><li>All logs collect the same meta-information about each event: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date, Time, Source, Category, Event, User ID and Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logged events include additional detail about each error (select Properties ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Error code number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed description with memory HEX buffer capture ( dump ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A link to Microsoft &quot;Help and Support Center&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Event Properties Dialog for Event Viewer
  53. 53. **** Activity 15-2 **** <ul><li>Create an MMC console for Event Viewer </li></ul><ul><li>Run console and select the System log </li></ul><ul><li>Select an event in right pane </li></ul><ul><li>Select A ction  P r operties (or just Properties from shortcut menu) </li></ul><ul><li>Review the information </li></ul>
  54. 54. Computer Management Tool <ul><li>Large number of tools that are collected into a single interface </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping them together makes locating and resolving problems easier </li></ul><ul><li>Accessed from Administrative Tools in the &quot;Control Panel&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The console is divided into three sections: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services and Applications </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Computer Management Tool
  56. 56. System Tools (Page 1) <ul><li>Event Viewer —same information as applet in Administrative Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Folders —views hidden and public shares, current sessions and open files; viewing and setting share settings for user limits, caching and permissions </li></ul><ul><li>Local Users and Groups —enhanced tool to manage users and groups (disabled if Active Directory is present) </li></ul>
  57. 57. System Tools (Page 2) <ul><li>Performance Logs and Alerts —the rather tedious and complex Windows XP &quot;Performance Monitor&quot; tool (Chapter 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Device Manager —same tool as found on Hardware tab of the System applet in the &quot;Control Panel&quot; </li></ul>
  58. 58. Storage <ul><li>Removable Storage —manages floppy disks, tapes, ZIP drives, flash drives, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Disk Defragmenter —reassembles fragmented files and aggregates unused space </li></ul><ul><li>Disk Management —views and alters partition and volume configuration of hard drives </li></ul>
  59. 59. Services and Applications <ul><li>Services —stop and starts services, and sets whether they initiate at startup </li></ul><ul><li>WMI Control —controls and configures W indows M anagement I nstrumentation service </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing Service —related to the indexing of documents to improve searching </li></ul>
  60. 60. **** Activity 15-3 **** <ul><li>Check to see if &quot;Workstation&quot; and &quot;Server&quot; services are running </li></ul><ul><li>Launch Computer Management (from applet Administrative Tools in &quot;Control Panel&quot;) and drill down to Services and Applications  Services </li></ul><ul><li>Right-click service for Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Click hyperlink to Start , Stop , Pause or Restart a service </li></ul>
  61. 61. Troubleshooting Wizards <ul><li>Many troubleshooting Wizards are associated with specific system components or services </li></ul><ul><li>Click the < Troubleshoot… > button to start the process (or for some applets the button may be labeled < Repair… > </li></ul><ul><li>Answer each question until a solution is determined (the focus is on accomplishing tasks, not just informational) </li></ul>
  62. 62. **** Activity ****
  63. 63. Troubleshooting Installation Problems (Page 1) <ul><li>Windows XP Professional installation is susceptible to several types of errors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media errors —physical problem with CD-ROM or the copy of distribution file on the network, or problem with the network link; replace media and restart the installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain controller communication difficulties —if attempting to join a domain; could be mistyped user name, password, or domain name; check spelling and check connection to the network </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Troubleshooting Installation Problems (Page 2) <ul><li>Installation errors (con.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop message errors or halting on the blue screen —most common reason is damaged or incompatible drivers; verify that the driver is correct and compatible with Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware problems —make sure the device is on the HAL or it may need to be replaced; sometimes manual resolution of Plug and Play conflicts are possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependency failures —a service or driver does not run at startup; check the Event Viewer </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Troubleshooting Printer Problems (Page 1) <ul><li>Printing problems occur anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic elimination of possible failure points should include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical components—cable, power, paper and toner, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer must be online—check light or LCD message; may be necessary to press Reset or Online button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer server—it must be booted and running </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Troubleshooting Printer Problems (Page 2) <ul><li>Possible failure points (con.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print queue—check for stalled jobs (the print job should show a specific status—if not it may be stalled) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer driver—reinstall or update </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to print from different application or different client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to print using Administrator access </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Troubleshooting Printer Problems (Page 3) <ul><li>Possible failure points (con.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print spooler—attempt to stop and restart; check &quot;Spoolsv.exe&quot; in Task Manager (if it is stalled, will be using no CPU time or most of it); change destination where print spool file resides if there is less than 100 MB free space </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. **** Activity 15-4 **** <ul><li>Right-click document in print queue and select Restart from shortcut menu </li></ul><ul><li>Stop and Start the Print Spooler service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch Computer Management (from applet Administrative Tools in &quot;Control Panel&quot;); drill down to Services and Applications  Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right-click &quot;Spoolsv.exe&quot; for Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Back in print queue, right-click document and select Cancel ; then try to reprint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or see if remaining job(s) print </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Troubleshooting RAS Problems <ul><li>RAS — R emote A ccess S ervice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to log into system remotely over phone lines (often when users are traveling) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerous points of possible failure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone number, username and password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration of the computers on both ends must match, i.e. security and protocol settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem settings and power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of communications line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old wiring, electrical interference, bad weather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also is call waiting disabled? </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Troubleshooting Network Problems (Page 1) <ul><li>Hardware devices are just as suspect as software components </li></ul><ul><li>May need to perform some electrical tests, change physical settings, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Check: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To see if other clients or network components are experiencing the same problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faults in NIC, network cables, terminators, hubs, repeaters, routers, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Troubleshooting Network Problems (Page 2) <ul><li>Check (con.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restart system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NIC drivers using self-test or diagnostic software to see if they are properly installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The domain/workgroup membership of client </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Troubleshooting Disk Problems <ul><li>Hard drive is the most active component on your computer that experiences so drive failures are not uncommon </li></ul><ul><li>Use Disk Management tool located in the Computer Management utility in Administrative Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Back up regularly </li></ul>
  73. 73. Miscellaneous Troubleshooting Issues <ul><li>Other troubleshooting issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permission problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MBR problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Watson—an application error debugger which detects application failures and logs diagnostic details </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. Permissions Problems <ul><li>Usually occur: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When user is a member of groups with conflicting permissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When permissions are managed on per-account basis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt same actions and activities with Administrator privileges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine access control lists (ACLs) </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. **** Activity ****
  76. 76. Master Boot Record Problems <ul><li>If MBR (contains data structure that starts boot process) fails, the emergency repair disk (ERD) cannot be used to repair it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must use one of the recovery tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From Recovery Console, select FIXMBR command which will repair the MBR </li></ul><ul><li>If unable to run Recovery Console, boot to MS-DOS and use FDISK/MBR command </li></ul>
  77. 77. Applying Service Packs and Hot Fixes (Page 1) <ul><li>A Service pack is a collection of code replacements, patches, error corrections, new applications and version improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrects, replaces, or hides deficiencies of either the original product, earlier service packs, or hot fixes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service packs are cumulative—all the updates for Service Pack 1 (SP1) are included in SP2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a bad idea to wait a period of time after release before implementing (Microsoft known for service packs with problems) </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Applying Service Packs and Hot Fixes (Page 2) <ul><li>Hot fix is similar to a service pack, but addresses only single problem, or small number of problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be fully tested so it should be used only when the problem it was designed to fix actually exists </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Applying Service Packs and Hot Fixes (Page 3) <ul><li>Important points to remember about patches (service packs and hot fixes): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always back up system before applying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be certain the patch is for the correct CPU type and language version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always read the readme file and Knowledge Base Q documents before installing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update ERD before and after installing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back up the Registry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export disk configuration data from Disk Administrator </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Applying Service Packs and Hot Fixes (Page 4) <ul><li>Service packs rewrite system-level files, so disconnect all users, exit all applications, and temporarily stop all unneeded services </li></ul><ul><li>To determine which is the latest service pack installed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select H elp menu  A bout Windows in any native Windows dialog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Registry view CSDVersion value entry in HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersion subkey </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Applying Service Packs and Hot Fixes (Page 5) <ul><li>Many ways to download and install of the most recent service pack: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download from http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/sp2/default.mspx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy way is to click Windows Update Web site hyperlink in &quot;Automatic Updates&quot; applet of Control Panel </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Applying Service Packs and Hot Fixes (Page 6) <ul><li>An integrated installation of a service pack involves integrating it into the installation procedure of Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Download network installation version of service pack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install it in a network server folder and unpack it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate files into duplicated Windows XP Professional CD files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share the folder and start the installation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service pack cannot be uninstalled when integrated in the Windows XP installation </li></ul>