COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance


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COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance

  1. 1. COSC 4750 CentOS Installation and maintenance
  2. 2. Installation <ul><li>Pretty easy to do </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a minimum amount of knowledge on the part of the installer </li></ul><ul><li>Finds most hardware during the installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have problems with some laptops and very new motherboards (mostly video issues). </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Can be installed using a boot disk and the CDROM </li></ul><ul><li>Just the CDROM, if you can boot from the CDROM </li></ul><ul><li>A boot disk (CD, USB or specialized floppies) and install from the network, if you have a network card </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The installation can be done in several modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal: Uses a GUI interface to ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>text: No GUI interface, used when it is unable to detect your monitor/video card correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expert: Expected you know what you are doing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Askmethod: uses normal and asks if you want to use network. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. With CDs <ul><li>It will tell you a CD was found. </li></ul><ul><li>Then asks if you want to verify the media. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure all 4 disks are good and it can install from them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 30 to 60 minutes depending on the CDROM drive. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Normal mode <ul><li>The installer will begin up a GUI interface now, if you using local media </li></ul><ul><li>Which language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English is default </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keyboard Configuration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mouse type: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Default is normally correct. (wheeled Mouse PS/2) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. If network install <ul><li>Wants to know if it should use DHCP or static IP number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May need a network driver disk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Then where to get the files from </li></ul><ul><li>Once it finds the install media, it will startup the GUI interface. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Upgrade options <ul><li>If a version of linux is installed, it will ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lists current version. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New install </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Install Type <ul><li>Personal desktop install </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meant for personal computers and laptops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installs GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No server deamons installed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. can’t telnet into this machine, because there is no telnet server. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Min install 2.3GB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If running Windows, will automatically configure for dual-boot </li></ul>
  10. 10. Install Type (2) <ul><li>Workstation and laptop class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install everything from Personal desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installs development environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installs system admin tools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires at least 3 GB free disk space </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Install Type (3) <ul><li>Server-Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must choose to install X Windows system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install network applications, such as file and printer sharing, web services, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes ALL existing partitions on ALL drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need at least 1.1GB of disk space, without X-windows </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Install Type (4) <ul><li>Custom Install </li></ul><ul><ul><li>620 MB minimum install, max 9 GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You select packages to be installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure grub if necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upgrading system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will not delete any data (backup anyway) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upgrades the kernel and all installed packages, if able to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May require of max of 9 GB to upgrade the system. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Custom Installation <ul><li>Partition drives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have installer auto partition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose to erase only linux partitions, all partitions, or only use free space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will setup swap partition, /boot partition which is 100 megs, and the rest goes to the / partition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: swap for partition 2x until 2GB, then 1x after that. Min of 64MB. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows you to review and make changes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Disk Druid (linux Druid = Windows Wizard) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to use then fdisk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer mistakes can be made with Disk Druid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need at least a / and swap partition in order to install the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended for servers, you have /, /boot, /usr, /home, /tmp, /var, and swap. /usr needs to be at least 5 GB (for a full installation). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For workstations or personal machines, the auto partition works very well. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using fdisk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated, similar to Microsoft fdisk program. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>With Disk druid, you request how much space you want to partition and it assigns it as close a possible </li></ul><ul><li>typically: 500MB comes out as 502MB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to drive restriction, sectors, and partitions already created. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has “Grow to fill disk” option. Use it on the last partition to get the rest of the space. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Partitions to Format <ul><li>The installer will ask which partitions to format. You don’t have format all of them, unless they are new. </li></ul><ul><li>checking for bad blocks while formatting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally a good idea, but it takes about an hour to check a 4GB to 8GB drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We’ll be using 20+ GB drives in lab. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Boot loader configuration <ul><li>If you plan to boot only from a floppy disk, you can skip the configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It created near the end of the installation. Also useful when lilo/grub has failed or other problems booting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Otherwise choose lilo or grub as the boot loader </li></ul><ul><li>If will list dual boot options automatic for you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is able to find them correctly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose when one you want to boot by default </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You can then opt for a boot password </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>For SMP (symmetric Multi Processor) motherboards, grub will create two boot entries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. uses all the processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. uses only one processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for use when you are having problems with a processor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Network Configuration <ul><li>Choose DHCP or manual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP will ask the DHCP server for all the network information that it needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose Activate on boot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will your networking start when the system boots </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Manual Network Settings <ul><li>Need IP number, Netmask, Network, and Broadcast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: IP, Netmask:, Network:, and Broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also Need Hostname, Gateway, Primary DNS, 2 nd (if known), and 3 rd (if known), DNS search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hostname:rhinst, Gateway:, DNS:,,, Search, </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Firewall Configuration <ul><li>Security level: High </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only DHCP can connect to the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT allowed: FTP, IRC DCC file transfers, RealAudio, Remote X windows clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for computers connected to the internet, but not servers </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Security level: medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows all Ports lower than 1023 to accessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FTP, SSH, telnet, HTTP, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFS server port allowed, Remote X clients, and X Font server (xfs is disable by default) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RealAudio does work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security level: No firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No blocking. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Language Support <ul><li>By default it installs English </li></ul><ul><li>You can choose to add more languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or remove english and install another one. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Time Zone Configuration <ul><li>You can choose you location or UTC (Universal Coordinated Time) </li></ul><ul><li>Location is Denver, Mountain Standard time. </li></ul><ul><li>UTC for Wyoming is UTC-07 US Mountain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can also choose to use Daylight Savings Time as well. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setting the system clock to UTC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The time on files will be UTC instead of local time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UTC is GMT </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Set root password. <ul><li>Account Creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the root password </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also create other user accounts at this time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentication Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD5 Password: Can use up to 256 characters, instead of the normal 8 or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow Password: Passwords are stored in a file called: /etc/shadow </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Package Group Selection <ul><li>You select components to install </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can choose everything (need max of 7 GB of disk space) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose Minimal need only 620 MB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You can also choose to select individual packages, instead of component group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>choose only www, instead of Mail/WWW/news tools. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Package installation <ul><li>At this point the installer, formats the hard drives, and installs the packages selected and configures the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing in our lab with a network install, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The actually package installation took about 45 minutes to install everything. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Finish the install. <ul><li>It will install all the packages and then ask you to reboot. </li></ul><ul><li>Next it will bring up the “First Time boot” configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Asks to agree to License agreement </li></ul>
  28. 28. Date and Time <ul><li>Enter correct time/date </li></ul><ul><li>Setup Network Time Protocol to set the time automatically from a known time server. </li></ul><ul><li>On campus, we use instead of the ones listed. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Configure X <ul><li>Choose the resolution and color depth. </li></ul><ul><li>You can also </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a Monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually, Redhat normally chooses the correct monitor by default, but always a good thing to check </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Choose a Video card, video memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually chooses the correct information by default </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not select very new video cards correctly. Cards that are less then 6 months old. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May have to deal with after the installation is completed. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also may have problems with laptop video cards. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many vendors offer video drivers, so you can check with their web site as well. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Account creation <ul><li>Account Creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create user accounts at this time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authentication Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MD5 Password: Can use up to 256 characters, instead of the normal 8 or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shadow Password: Passwords are stored in a file called: /etc/shadow </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. User Authentication <ul><ul><li>Enable NIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can use an existing group of computer accounts on the network, instead of having to create account local to this machine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable LDAP, Hesiod, Kerberos5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable SMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a windows server to authenticate users. You still have to create local account, but use windows for passwords. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Done <ul><li>It should now boot in GUI multiuser mode. </li></ul><ul><li>See if everything works. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now it is time to customize your machine </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Next Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upgrading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintenance </li></ul></ul>