Chapter Six Networking Hardware Network Interface Cards (NICs)


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  • Means by which a computer can request information from the CPU If two devices choose the same IRQ, resource conflicts and performance problems will result If IRQ conflicts occur, set the devices IRQ manually Memory range Hexadecimal number indicating the area memory that the NIC and CPU will use for exchanging, or buffering, the data Base I/O port Setting that specifies, in hexadecimal
  • Uplink—connection to another hub Backbone—connection to network backbone Management Console Port—lets you plug in laptop or other computer to view/manage hub activity
  • Two types of bridges Transparent bridges keep a table of addresses in memory to determine where to send data Source-routing bridges require the route to be included with the transmission (used in IBM Token Ring)
  • Convergence time—how long does it take the router to figure out the best path if it runs into a problem Bandwidth overhead—how much traffic does the routing protocol itself add to the network traffic.
  • RIP—oldest routing protocol; still widely used; only looks at the number of hops that it will take for a packet to get to its destination. Each router using RIP broadcasts its routing table every 30 seconds regardless of whether or not table has changed. OSPF—looks at number of hops and congestion on route before making a decision of which route to send packets. Requires more memory and processing power on part of router but does insure better use of bandwidth. Second most frequently used routing protocol. EIGRP—Supported only by CISCO routers. Has low overhead and fast convergence time. BGP—protocol for Internet backbone.
  • Hardware/software that connects two dissimilar kinds for networks we use many different email software programs but we can all open mail for other systems IBM Host gateway—allows PCs and mainframes to talk to each other even though they have different character sets etc. Internet gateway—enables LANs to connect to the Internet
  • Chapter Six Networking Hardware Network Interface Cards (NICs)

    1. 1. Chapter Six <ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul>
    2. 2. Network Interface Cards (NICs) <ul><li>Connectivity devices enabling a workstation, server, printer or other node to receive and transmit data over the network media </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called network adapters </li></ul><ul><li>NICs are physical and data link layer devices </li></ul>
    3. 3. Network Interface Cards (NICs) <ul><li>Types of NICs </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) </li></ul><ul><li>MicroChannel Architecture (MCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) </li></ul>FIGURE 6-1 Four primary bus architectures
    4. 4. Network Interface Cards (NICs) <ul><li>NICs may connect to interfaces other than a PC’s bus. For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For laptop computers, Personal Computer Memory Card International Association slots may be used to connect NICs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PCMCIA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called PC card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in the early 1990s to provide a standard interface for connecting any type of device to a portable computer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Network Interface Cards (NICs) FIGURE 6-3 Typical PCMCIA NIC FIGURE 6-4 Parallel port NIC
    6. 6. Network Interface Cards (NICs) FIGURE 6-5 Wireless NIC and transceiver FIGURE 6-6 Ethernet NICs for printers
    7. 7. Network Interface Cards (NICs) <ul><li>Installing NICs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installing hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installing driver—software the tells OS how to communicate with NIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifying IRQ, memory range, I/O port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring firmware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities supplied with NIC that enables you to write configuration changes to the EPROM chip on the NIC card </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Installing and Configuring NIC Software <ul><li>After NIC is physically installed, restart the PC </li></ul><ul><li>The driver for the NIC card must be installed and configuration information entered </li></ul>
    9. 9. Repeaters <ul><li>Connectivity device that regenerates and amplifies an analog or digital signal </li></ul>FIGURE 6-14 Repeater
    10. 10. Hubs <ul><li>Multiport repeater containing one port that connects to a network’s backbone and multiple ports that connect to a group of workstations </li></ul>
    11. 11. Hubs <ul><li>Passive hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only repeats signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regenerate or amplify signal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligent hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possesses processing capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standalone Hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves a workgroup of computers that are separated from the rest of the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stackable Hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to be linked with other hubs in a single telecommunications closet </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Modular Hubs and Intelligent Hubs <ul><li>Modular hub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a number of interface options within one chassis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connection point for networks using with different cabling, e.g., 10base2 and 10baseT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Intelligent hubs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called managed hubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIB (management information base) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of data used by management programs to analyze network performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Choosing the Right Hub <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Size and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Management benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul>
    14. 14. Bridges <ul><li>Reduce network traffic bottleneck </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerate signals to extend network lengths </li></ul><ul><li>Operate at the Data Link Layer of the OSI model because they have to read packet addresses </li></ul>
    15. 15. Bridges <ul><li>Filtering database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection of data created and used by a bridge that correlates the MAC addresses of connected workstations with their locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as a forwarding table </li></ul></ul>Segment 1 Segment 2 Bridge
    16. 16. Bridges <ul><li>Transparent Bridging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method used on most Ethernet networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source Route Bridging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method used on most Token Ring networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translation Bridging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Method that can connect Token Ring and Ethernet networks </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Switches <ul><li>Switches subdivide a network into smaller logical pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Collision domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portion of a LAN encompassing devices that may cause and detect collisions among their group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switches are layer 2 devices </li></ul>
    18. 18. Switches <ul><li>Switch Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut-through mode—switch reads only the header to determine where to forward the packet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store and forward mode—switch reads the entire packet and checks for accuracy before forwarding </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Using Switches to Create VLANs <ul><li>Virtual local area networks (VLANs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means by which a switch can logically group a number of ports into a broadcast domain </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Higher-Layer Switches <ul><li>Switch capable of interpreting Layer 3 is called a Layer 3 switch </li></ul><ul><li>Switch capable of interpreting Layer 4 is called a Layer 4 switch </li></ul><ul><li>Higher-layer switches may also be called routing switches or application switches </li></ul>
    21. 21. Routers <ul><li>Routers connect two or more networks </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of hardware and software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network server, separate computer, special black box </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical interface for various networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system and Routing protocol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Routers operated at the Network layer </li></ul>
    22. 22. Routers <ul><li>Can connect dissimilar LANs and WANs running at different transmission speeds and using a variety of protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Read the network address information in a packet </li></ul><ul><li>Calculates the optimal path to a particular network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reroute packets if a path is not available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routing tables stored in the router list all known addresses and possible paths </li></ul>
    23. 23. How do Routers Select Routes <ul><li>Dynamic route selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers continually adjusts the routes based on network conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Static route selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Route is designated in a table and router cannot vary from that route </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Router Features and Functions <ul><li>Filter out broadcast transmission to alleviate network congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent certain types of traffic from getting to a network </li></ul><ul><li>Provide high network fault tolerance through redundant components </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor network traffic and report statistics to a MIB </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose internal or other connectivity problems and trigger alarms </li></ul>
    25. 25. Routers
    26. 26. Routing Protocols <ul><li>Means by which routers communicate with each other about network status </li></ul><ul><li>Routing protocol characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The time it takes for a router to recognize a best path in the event of a change or outage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth overhead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burden placed on an underlying network to support the routing protocol </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Routing Protocols <ul><li>RIP (Routing Information Protocol) for IP and IPX </li></ul><ul><li>OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) for IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best path refers to the most efficient route from one node on a network to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><li>BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) for IP </li></ul>
    28. 28. Brouters and Routing Switches <ul><li>Bridge router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called a brouter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry term used to describe routers that take on some characteristics of bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routing switch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another term for a Layer 3 or Layer 4 switch </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Gateways <ul><li>Combination of networking hardware and software that connects two dissimilar kinds of networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail gateway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM host gateway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet gateway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN gateway </li></ul></ul>