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Network Connectivity Guide to Operating Systems   Third Edition
Objectives <ul><li>After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain ...
<ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system of computing devices, computer resources, information resources, and communic...
<ul><li>Hardware  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computers, printers, communications cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internetworki...
<ul><li>Client operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>run applications, process information, and communicate over the netw...
<ul><li>Workstation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU and can run applications locally, or obtain applications and files from anot...
<ul><li>Server Operating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>network operating system (NOS)  that coordinates network activities ...
Networking Basics (continued) <ul><li>Publishing an application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>installing custom configured softwar...
The Development of  Network Operating Systems <ul><li>UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first operating system designed for netwo...
The Development of  Network Operating Systems (continued) <ul><li>Windows 3.11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows for Workgroup...
The Development of  Network Operating Systems (continued) <ul><li>Windows 95   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expanded peer-to-peer...
The Development of  Network Operating Systems (continued) <ul><li>Windows 2000   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server and Professi...
Local and Wide Area Networks <ul><li>Local area network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one in which the service area is relat...
Network Topologies <ul><li>Topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical design of the network  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bus topol...
Network Topologies (continued) <ul><li>Ring topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one in which the data-carrying signal goes from...
Networking Hardware <ul><li>Network interface card (NIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to computers and other devices connect...
Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Firmware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>software logic on the NIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Twisted-pair cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one or more pair of twisted copper </li><...
Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Hub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common device to connect devices to a LAN </li></ul></ul...
Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Wireless access point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects wireless devices to a wired n...
Packets, Frames, and Cells <ul><li>Each data unit is called a  packet  or  frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>terms are sometimes...
Packets, Frames, and Cells (continued) <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>older networks transmit at 4 Mbps (megab...
Packets, Frames, and Cells (continued) <ul><li>One element of the cell header is path information that enables the cell to...
Networking Protocols <ul><li>Protocol   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set of formatting guidelines for network communications </li...
Networking Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Protocols are used for many types of network communications: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Transport Protocols <ul><li>Common transport protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>token rin...
Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Ethernet   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one station on the network transmits at a given t...
Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Ethernet networks are designed in a bus or star topology </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Et...
Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Ethernet versions are compatible with popular network operating systems such as: <...
Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Token ring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one network station transmits at a time </li></ul...
Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Wireless network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>described by it MAC (medium access control)...
Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft desi...
Communications Protocols <ul><li>Communications protocols   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protocols that carry data between two st...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>ARPANET, the long-distance network that set the foundation for the Internet <...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Sequence Packet Exchange (SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protocol that provides c...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>IPX works with other specialized service and NetWare protocols as follows: </...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced ...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>TCP/IP  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the oldest protocols </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>TCP communication functions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the communica...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>The IP makes sure that a frame or packet reaches the intended destination </l...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>IP addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dotted decimal notation  </li></ul></ul><...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Unicast   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one copy of each packet is sent  </li></ul></...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class A networks  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are identified by a value between 1 a...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class C  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>addresses are used for unicast network communi...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class D   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do not reflect the network size, only that th...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is used for experimentation, and addresses rang...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new way of addre...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Subnet mask   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables identification of smaller network...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Some protocols include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing Informati...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Some protocols include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-to-Point Pr...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>AppleTalk   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protocol used between Macintosh computers <...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Essential services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remote access to files over a networ...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>AppleTalk protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Address Resolution Proto...
Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>AppleTalk protocols (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name-Binding Protocol ...
Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System <ul><li>Computer operating systems are designed to support on...
Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Mac OS X Network panel: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Most UNIX systems have TCP/IP networking ...
Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Red Hat Linux GNOME interface </li></ul><...
Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Communications protocols are set up in Wi...
Integrating Different Operating Systems on the Same Network <ul><li>Key to implementing multiple operating systems on one ...
Using Operating  Systems for Dial-Up Access <ul><li>Remote Access Services (RAS) server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dialing into...
Using Operating  Systems for Dial-Up Access <ul><li>Security  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very important topic because of potent...
Using Operating  Systems for Dial-Up Access <ul><li>Authentication   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>way you identify and validate w...
Summary <ul><li>Network is a system of information resources and productivity tools  </li></ul><ul><li>Invented because th...
Summary (continued) <ul><li>Standardized communication means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frames, packets, and protocols </li></u...
Summary (continued) <ul><li>Bridges, switches, and routers can be employed for network security  </li></ul><ul><li>LANs ar...
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Chapter 8 - Network Connectivity

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Chapter 8 - Network Connectivity

  1. 1. Network Connectivity Guide to Operating Systems Third Edition
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain networking basics </li></ul><ul><li>Describe network transport and communications protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to integrate different operating systems on the same network </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how operating systems are used for remote networking </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system of computing devices, computer resources, information resources, and communication devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linked with cables or wirelessly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The basic principle of networking is similar to connecting telephones for communications </li></ul>Networking Basics
  4. 4. <ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computers, printers, communications cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internetworking devices such as bridges, switches, routers, and hubs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>client and server network operating systems </li></ul></ul>Networking Basics (continued)
  5. 5. <ul><li>Client operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>run applications, process information, and communicate over the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0 Workstation, Windows 2000 Professional, and Windows XP Professional </li></ul></ul>Networking Basics (continued)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Workstation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPU and can run applications locally, or obtain applications and files from another computer on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terminal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no CPU or local storage for running programs independently </li></ul></ul>Networking Basics (continued)
  7. 7. <ul><li>Server Operating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>network operating system (NOS) that coordinates network activities and the sharing of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote Installation Services (RIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>install pre-configured client operating systems, such as Windows XP, on a mass scale </li></ul></ul>Networking Basics (continued)
  8. 8. Networking Basics (continued) <ul><li>Publishing an application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>installing custom configured software from a central server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assigning applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables a client to automatically start a particular version of software through a desktop shortcut or menu selection, or by clicking a file type </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Development of Network Operating Systems <ul><li>UNIX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first operating system designed for networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of first commercial operating system to emphasize network capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Development of Network Operating Systems (continued) <ul><li>Windows 3.11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows for Workgroups (WFW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connects to NetWare, Microsoft, and other servers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workgroups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-defined groups of member computers </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Development of Network Operating Systems (continued) <ul><li>Windows 95 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expanded peer-to-peer networking capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows Me </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better networking capabilities for home use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows NT 3.1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intended for industrial strength networking from the beginning </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Development of Network Operating Systems (continued) <ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server and Professional (Workstation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contain the core elements of Windows 2000 kernel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>home and small office networking </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Local and Wide Area Networks <ul><li>Local area network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one in which the service area is relatively small or one spread throughout a floor in a building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide area network (WAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one that offers networking services over a long distance, such as between cities, states, or countries </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Network Topologies <ul><li>Topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical design of the network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bus topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designed like a climbing rope with knots tied along the way for a foothold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning and end to the rope, and junctures along the way for your feet </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Network Topologies (continued) <ul><li>Ring topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one in which the data-carrying signal goes from station to station around the ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no beginning or end point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Star topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one in which there is a hub in the middle, with cable segments coming out of the hub in all directions </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Networking Hardware <ul><li>Network interface card (NIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to computers and other devices connected to a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unique hexadecimal address, called a device or physical address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also called Media Access Control (MAC) address </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Firmware </li></ul><ul><ul><li>software logic on the NIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication between the operating system and its NIC is controlled by driver software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Guided” media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>twisted-pair cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fiber-optic cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Unguided” media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>space </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Twisted-pair cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one or more pair of twisted copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UTP-unshielded twisted pair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more expensive than UTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>original standard but not often used now </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glass or plastic transmitting signals with light </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Hub </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common device to connect devices to a LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmits to all segments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligent hub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmits only to the destination segment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Networking Hardware (continued) <ul><li>Wireless access point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects wireless devices to a wired network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to link segments that are close together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extend segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promiscuous mode </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to join networks, either locally or remotely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>look at routing information in packets before forwarding those packets to another network </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Packets, Frames, and Cells <ul><li>Each data unit is called a packet or frame </li></ul><ul><ul><li>terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are not the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both consist of data and transmission control information contained in a header </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>packet contains routing information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data is placed after the header information, and followed by a footer or trailer that enables detection of a transmission error </li></ul>
  22. 22. Packets, Frames, and Cells (continued) <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>older networks transmit at 4 Mbps (megabits per second), 10 Mbps, and 16 Mbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>newer networks transmit at 100 Mbps to 10 Gbps and faster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data unit designed for high-speed communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Payload </li></ul><ul><ul><li>portion of a frame, packet, or cell that contains the actual data </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Packets, Frames, and Cells (continued) <ul><li>One element of the cell header is path information that enables the cell to take the route through the network </li></ul>
  24. 24. Networking Protocols <ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set of formatting guidelines for network communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinate network communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network may use several different protocols </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Networking Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Protocols are used for many types of network communications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating transport of packets and frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulating data and communication control information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing communications to accomplish a specific function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling communications over a long-distance network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling remote users to dial into networks </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Transport Protocols <ul><li>Common transport protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>token ring </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one station on the network transmits at a given time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If two or more stations transmit at the same time, frames collide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmission control method used by Ethernet is called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Ethernet networks are designed in a bus or star topology </li></ul><ul><li>Fast Ethernet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>commonplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>handle either 10 or 100 Mbps communications </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Ethernet versions are compatible with popular network operating systems such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NetWare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows NT, Windows 2000, and Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 98/Me </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mac OS </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Token ring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one network station transmits at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmissions are controlled by the use of a specialized frame, called a token </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transmitted around the network until it is captured by a station that wants to transmit </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Wireless network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>described by it MAC (medium access control) protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSWMA/CA) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Transport Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft designed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Datalink Interface (ODI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell designed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NIC cable interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>match the type of cable used on the network </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Communications Protocols <ul><li>Communications protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protocols that carry data between two stations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed to enable a NetWare file server to communicate with its client workstations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encapsulates data and transports it within a host transport protocol </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>ARPANET, the long-distance network that set the foundation for the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Protocol (IP) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Sequence Packet Exchange (SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protocol that provides connection-oriented communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPX relies upon SPX to provide reliable, error-free communication </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>IPX works with other specialized service and NetWare protocols as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link Support Layer (LSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing Information Protocol (RIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced in the early nineties as the main protocol for LAN Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft does not support in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one of the oldest protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNIX always used TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed for extremely reliable point-to-point communications </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>TCP communication functions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishes the communication session between two computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures that data transmissions are accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulates, transmits, and receives the payload data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closes the communication session between two computers </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>The IP makes sure that a frame or packet reaches the intended destination </li></ul><ul><li>IP functions with TCP: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles packet addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles packet routing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragments packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides simple packet error detection </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>IP addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dotted decimal notation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class A through Class E </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Unicast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one copy of each packet is sent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multicast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recipients are placed in a group </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class A networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are identified by a value between 1 and 126 in the first position of the dotted decimal address </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unicast addressing format for medium-sized networks composed of up to 65,536 nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identified by the first octet of bits ranging from decimal 128 to 191 </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>addresses are used for unicast network communications on small networks of 256 nodes or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>range of 192 to 223 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class D </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do not reflect the network size, only that the communication is a multicast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the four octets are used to specify a group of nodes to receive the multicast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>range from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Class E </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is used for experimentation, and addresses range from 240 to 255 in the first octet </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new way of addressing that puts a slash (/) after the dotted decimal notation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides more IP address options for medium-sized networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>there is shortage of Class B and Class C addresses </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Subnet mask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enables identification of smaller networks within the larger setup </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Some protocols include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing Information Protocol (RIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Some protocols include the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Name Service (DNS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protocol used between Macintosh computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer-to-peer protocol </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>Essential services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remote access to files over a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network print services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to computers running MS-DOS or Windows operating systems </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>AppleTalk protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Communications Protocols (continued) <ul><li>AppleTalk protocols (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name-Binding Protocol (NBP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printer Access Protocol (PAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System <ul><li>Computer operating systems are designed to support one or more communications protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Steps involved in setting up communications protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>install the protocol software that is written for that operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bind the protocol with the NIC </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Mac OS X Network panel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration of IP address and subnet mask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic configuration of IP address using DHCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of the nearest router by IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of Domain Name Service (DNS) servers by IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of search domains by IP address </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Most UNIX systems have TCP/IP networking support built in </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX/Linux </li></ul><ul><ul><li>configure a loopback device </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Red Hat Linux GNOME interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>configure a network connection by clicking the Start icon on the panel, pointing to Programs, pointing to System, and clicking Network Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NetWare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IPX and TCP/IP can be set up in a window that appears when NetWare is installed </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Implementing Communications Protocols in an Operating System (continued) <ul><li>Communications protocols are set up in Windows 95/98/Me and Windows NT 4.0 through the Network icon in the Control Panel </li></ul>
  60. 60. Integrating Different Operating Systems on the Same Network <ul><li>Key to implementing multiple operating systems on one network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>select a transport protocol and communications protocols that are supported in all of the operating systems </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Using Operating Systems for Dial-Up Access <ul><li>Remote Access Services (RAS) server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dialing into a LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network services that can be installed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol PPTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Using Operating Systems for Dial-Up Access <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>very important topic because of potential threats from viruses or hackers </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Using Operating Systems for Dial-Up Access <ul><li>Authentication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>way you identify and validate who you are to the server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encoding of the data between you and the server </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Summary <ul><li>Network is a system of information resources and productivity tools </li></ul><ul><li>Invented because they enable users to share information and information resources over short and long distances </li></ul><ul><li>Networks are designed in standardized topologies (bus, star, and ring) </li></ul>
  65. 65. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Standardized communication means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frames, packets, and protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocols act as a common language for communications </li></ul><ul><li>Modern operating systems use TCP/IP and IPX/SPX </li></ul>
  66. 66. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Bridges, switches, and routers can be employed for network security </li></ul><ul><li>LANs are smaller networks </li></ul><ul><li>WANs are long-distance networks </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-up access with communications protocols, such as SLIP and PPP </li></ul><ul><li>PPP is most commonly used because it can transport a combination of protocols </li></ul>

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