Chapter 1: Ethernet Networking


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Chapter 1: Ethernet Networking

  1. 1. Collision/Broadcast Domain <ul><li>The term collision domain defines the set of devices for which their frames could collide </li></ul><ul><li>A broadcast domain is a set of NICs for which a broadcast frame sent by one NIC will be received by all other NICs in the broadcast domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub? </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge? </li></ul><ul><li>Switches? </li></ul><ul><li>Routers? </li></ul>
  2. 2. Identify collision and broadcast domains for each case
  3. 3. 10-Mbps Ethernet <ul><li>No hub, switch, or wiring panel. The series of cables creates an electrical bus </li></ul><ul><li>the carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD) </li></ul><ul><li>10Base2: 10Mbps, baseband technology, almost 200 meters </li></ul><ul><li>10Base5: 10Mbps, baseband technology, almost 5 00 meters </li></ul>
  4. 4. Ethernet Networking with a Hub <ul><li>Half-Duplex 10BaseT </li></ul><ul><li>The network interface card (NIC) sends a frame. </li></ul><ul><li>The NIC loops the sent frame onto its receive pair. </li></ul><ul><li>The hub receives the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>The hub sends the frame across an internal bus so that all other NICs can receive the electrical signal. </li></ul><ul><li>The hub repeats the signal to each receive pair to all other devices. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ethernet Networking with a Switch <ul><li>Full Duplex Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Full-duplex means that an Ethernet card can send and receive concurrently. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a switch or direct connection from host to using a crossover cable. </li></ul><ul><li>The switch interprets the electrical signal as an Ethernet frame and processes the frame to make a decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub – Layer 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Switch – Layer 2 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Ethernet Features Logic that enables concurrent sending and receiving, allowed when one device is attached to a switch port, ensuring that no collisions can occur. Full Duplex Logic that requires a card to only send or receive at a single point in time. Used to avoid collisions Half Duplex One electrical bus per switch port creating multiple collision domains, cabled in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling 10BaseT with a Switch One electrical bus shared among all devices creating a single collision domain, cabled in a star topology using twisted-pair cabling 10BaseT with a Hub Single bus cabled serially between devices using coaxial cable. 10Base2, 10Base5
  7. 7. Ethernet Addressing <ul><li>Ethernet uses MAC address burned into each NIC. </li></ul><ul><li>48 bits (6 bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>First 3 bytes assigned by IEEE </li></ul><ul><li>Unicast MAC Address </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast MAC Address (FFFF.FFFF.FFFF) </li></ul><ul><li>Multicast Address </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ethernet Frames <ul><li>Framing defines how a string of binary numbers is interpreted </li></ul><ul><li>Preamble </li></ul><ul><li>SD: Start frame eliminator </li></ul><ul><li>Destination MAC address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source address </li></ul><ul><li>Length of file </li></ul><ul><li>DSAP SSAP, SNAP (Subnet Network Access Protocol) </li></ul><ul><li>Control/Data </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Check Sequence (FCS) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethernet Cabling <ul><li>Straight-Through Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Host to Switch or hub </li></ul><ul><li>Router to Switch or hub </li></ul><ul><li>Crossover Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Switch to Switch </li></ul><ul><li>Hub to Hub </li></ul><ul><li>Host to Host </li></ul><ul><li>Rolled Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Serial Port </li></ul>
  10. 10. Data Encapsulation <ul><li>Step 1: Data Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Data segmentation </li></ul>Hello! &@$ Application Presentation Session hello 101010011100100100100 PDU1 101010011100100100100 PDU1 PDU2 101010011100100100100 PDU1 PDU2 PDU3 Transport Name: Data Stream 0101010 0100100 PDU1 PDU2 PDU3 PDU1 PDU2 PDU3 TCP TCP : : Name: Segment
  11. 11. <ul><li>Step 3: Packet creation for routing </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Frame Header </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>10010100001 </li></ul>Network Name: Packet or Datagram 0101010 0100100 PDU1 PDU2 PDU3 PDU1 PDU2 PDU3 TCP TCP : : Name: Frame IP IP Data Link 0101010 PDU1 PDU2 PDU3 TCP IP LLC MAC LLC 802.2 MAC 802.3 FCS Physical Layer
  12. 12. LAN Design Models <ul><li>Mesh design </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-layer network model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-layer network model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-layer network model </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Three Layer Model <ul><li>Core-layer </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution Layer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a backbone network connecting all LANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no end user at this level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implementation of security and network policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access Layer </li></ul>
  14. 14. Two and One-Layer Model