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Ch. 01 - Introduction to Networking


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Ch. 01 - Introduction to Networking

  1. 1. Chapter One An Introduction to Networking
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>List advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computing </li></ul><ul><li>Identify elements of a network </li></ul><ul><li>Describe several specific uses of a network </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networks </li></ul><ul><li>Identify some of the certifications available to networking professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,” skills to help in succeeding as a networking professional </li></ul>
  4. 4. Networks and Standalone Computers <ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmission media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks enable users to share devices and data, collectively called a network’s resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standalone computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses programs and data only from its local disks and is not connected to a network </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Sneakernet <ul><li>Method of sharing data by copying it to a disk and carrying the disk from computer to computer </li></ul>Figure 1-1: Data sharing before the advent of networks
  6. 6. Local and Remote Computers <ul><li>Local computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer on which user is working </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer that user controls or works on via network connection </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Peer-to-Peer Network <ul><li>Computers communicate on single segment of cable and share each other’s data and devices </li></ul><ul><li>Simple example of a local area network (LAN) </li></ul>Figure 1-2: Simple peer-to-peer network
  8. 8. Local Area Network (LAN) <ul><li>Network of computers and other devices confined to relatively small space </li></ul><ul><li>LANs involving many computers are usually server-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On a server-based network , special computers (known as servers ) process data for and facilitate communication between other computers on the network (known as clients ) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Networking Basics <ul><li>Workstation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer that typically runs a desktop operating system and connects to a network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Client/server architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking model in which clients use central server to share applications, devices, and data </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Networking Basics <ul><li>Client/server network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network based on client/server architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special software designed to manage data and other resources on a server for a number of clients </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Networking Basics Figure 1-3: LAN with a file server
  12. 12. Networking Basics Figure 1-4: An example of a complex network
  13. 13. Advantages of Server-Based over Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>User login accounts and passwords can be assigned in one place </li></ul><ul><li>Access to multiple shared resources can be centrally granted </li></ul><ul><li>Servers are optimized to handle heavy processing loads and dedicated to handling requests from clients </li></ul><ul><li>Servers can connect more than a handful of computers </li></ul>
  14. 14. MANs and WANs <ul><li>Metropolitan area network (MAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network connecting clients and servers in multiple buildings within limited geographic area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide area network (WAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network that spans large distance and connects two or more LANs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet is an example of a very intricate and extensive WAN that spans the globe </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. WAN Figure 1-5: A simple WAN
  16. 16. Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks <ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to referring to a computer on the network, may also refers to human user of client workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server </li></ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Network interface card (NIC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computers </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks Figure 1-6: A network interface card (NIC)
  18. 18. <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) </li></ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server that manages shared resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Node </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that is identified by a unique identifying number, known as its network address </li></ul></ul>Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks
  19. 19. Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks <ul><li>Topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical layout of computer network </li></ul></ul>Figure 1-7: Commonly used network topologies
  20. 20. Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks <ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules network uses to transfer data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Packets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The distinct units of data transmitted from one computer to another on a network </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks <ul><li>Addressing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheme for assigning unique identifying number to every workstation on network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network is its address </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Elements Common to All Server-Based Networks <ul><li>Transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means through which data are transmitted and received </li></ul></ul>Figure 1-8: Examples of network transmission media
  23. 23. How Networks Are Used <ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features provided by a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>File and print services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communications services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mail services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Network Services <ul><li>File services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server that provides file services is called a file server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Print services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows printers to be shared by several users on a network </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Network Services <ul><li>Communications services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow remote users to connect to a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remote user </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Person working on a computer in a different geographical location from the LAN’s server </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Server that runs communications services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also referred to as access servers and remote access servers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Network Services <ul><li>Mail services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinate storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of software and hardware enabling two different kinds of networks to exchange data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable networks to communicate with the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Network Services <ul><li>Management services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous services fall under category of network management </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Important Management Services <ul><li>Traffic monitoring and control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Data transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Segment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Part of LAN that is logically separated from other parts of LAN and that shares fixed amount of traffic capacity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Important Management Services <ul><li>Load balancing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributing process activity evenly across a network so that no single device is overwhelmed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hardware diagnosis and failure alert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining when a network component fails and automatically notifying network administrators through e-mail or pager </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Important Management Services <ul><li>Asset management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting and storing data on number and types of software and hardware assets in an organization’s network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>License tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining how many copies of a single application are currently in use on a network </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Important Management Services <ul><li>Security auditing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating what security measures are currently in force and notifying network administrator if a security breach occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically transferring data file or program from the server to a client on the network </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Important Management Services <ul><li>Address management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Backup and restoration of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backing up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copying critical files to a secure storage area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieving data if original files are lost or deleted </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Becoming a Network Professional <ul><li>Mastering the technical challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Developing your “soft skills” </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuing certification </li></ul><ul><li>Finding a job in networking </li></ul><ul><li>Joining professional associations </li></ul>
  34. 34. Mastering the Technical Challenges <ul><li>Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server software </li></ul><ul><li>Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network server hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client software </li></ul><ul><li>Installing, configuring, and troubleshooting network client hardware </li></ul>
  35. 35. Mastering the Technical Challenges <ul><li>Understanding the characteristics of different transmission media </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding network design </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding network protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how users interact with the network </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mastering the Technical Challenges <ul><li>Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet and intranet design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice/data integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote and mobile computing </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Mastering the Technical Challenges <ul><li>Specialty areas in high demand for networking professionals (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data integrity and fault tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth knowledge of Microsoft networking products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth knowledge of NetWare networking products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth knowledge of router configuration and management </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Developing Your “Soft Skills” <ul><li>Skills not easily measured but important to a networking career: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral and written communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership abilities </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Pursuing Certification <ul><li>Certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passing a series of exams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Technology Association (CompTIA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An association that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionals </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Pursuing Certification <ul><li>A+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification established by CompTIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification established by Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft’s products </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Pursuing Certification <ul><li>Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification established by Novell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrates in-depth understanding of Novell’s networking software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network+ (Net+) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certification established by CompTIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skills </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Pursuing Certification <ul><li>Benefits of becoming certified include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better salary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to better support </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Finding a Job in Networking <ul><li>Search the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Read the paper </li></ul><ul><li>Visit a career center </li></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><li>Attend career fairs </li></ul>
  44. 44. Finding a Job in Networking Table 1-1: Web sites with job databases
  45. 45. Joining Professional Associations <ul><li>Benefits can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting with people who have similar interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing new opportunities for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing access to specialized information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving you tangible assets such as free goods </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Joining Professional Associations Table 1-2: Web sites of networking organizations
  47. 47. Chapter Summary <ul><li>A Network is a group of computers or other devices connected by some type of transmission media </li></ul><ul><li>Networks may be small or large, connecting computers in one office or across the world </li></ul><ul><li>All networks offer advantages relative to the use of standalone computers </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest form of a network still used today connects a handful of computers through one cable and uses peer-to-peer communication </li></ul>
  48. 48. Chapter Summary <ul><li>A LAN is a network of computers and other devices confined to a relatively small space </li></ul><ul><li>A WAN is a network connecting two or more geographically distinct LANs </li></ul><ul><li>All server-based networks share some common elements </li></ul><ul><li>The physical layout of a computer network is called a topology </li></ul><ul><li>Network protocols are rules the network uses to transfer data </li></ul>
  49. 49. Chapter Summary <ul><li>File and print services provide foundation for networking </li></ul><ul><li>Communications services allow remote users to connect to the network </li></ul><ul><li>Mail services allow networks users to exchange and store e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Internet services enable organizations to connect to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Network management services centrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on network </li></ul>
  50. 50. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Networking professionals are in demand </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuing certification can benefit you in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>Hone your soft skills </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous resources are available in searching for networking positions </li></ul><ul><li>Joining associations can benefit your professional growth </li></ul>