• Scope of this document
• Conventions used in this manual
2. Configuring the IP Address of the PC
• Static IP vs. DHCP
• Assigning a Static IP to a Computer in Windows XP
3. Connecting the PC’s to the Network
• Networks and Network Cable
• Connecting a Network Using an Ethernet Switch
• Connecting a 10/100 Network Using a Crossover Cable
• Connecting a Gigabit Network Using a Crossover Cable
4. Commissioning and Testing the Network Connection and Configuration
• Using the Link Light
• Pinging Another Computer
• Appendix A – Basic Network Diagrams
• Appendix B – Alternate Configurations for Broadband Users
A functional TCP/IP Ethernet network is required for FX Teleport to function correctly.
This document provides a brief introduction to TCP/IP networking and instructions on
how to configure your network for use with FX Teleport.
We will cover the three major items that are required to set the network up for use with
• Configuring the IP address of the PC
• Connecting the PC’s to the network
• Commissioning and testing the connection and configuration
It is important to perform these steps in this order and to pay attention to the details as
you follow this procedure.
If you use a broadband connection to access the Internet, and you must access the Internet
from one or more machines in the FX Teleport network; then, it is recommended that you
consult with your ISP before making any changes to your network configuration. Making
changes to your network configuration may stop you from being able to access the
Internet. IF YOU CHOOSE TO MAKE ANY CHANGES, FX-MAX OR ITS
EMPLOYEES ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGES THAT MAY
OCCUR. You may refer to Appendix B for suggestions on broadband configuration
This manual is not designed to instruct you on the technical aspects of networking; rather,
it is simply designed to step you through the necessary steps to connect and configure a
network for FX Teleport operation. Many of the concepts are not discussed in-depth. If
you are not familiar with networking technology, we recommend obtaining the services
of a qualified professional; however, if you feel comfortable with making adjustments to
your networking settings, proceed at your own risk.
Conventions Used in this Manual
We use several text conventions to help distinguish what we are talking about. For
instance if you see text that is Bold and Italic, you will see
• Bold – Underline: New Section
• Bold – Italic: The name of a control, item, or object
• Bold: An important term – the bold is used only for the first time the term appears
• Italic: A message you should see on your screen.
• Italic – Underline: A message you should type into the computer
• Numbered list: a step by step procedure
• Bulleted list: points to check that are not order sensitive
Static IP vs. DHCP
A computer needs an IP address to be able to communicate over a TCP/IP network. Just
like you need an address to receive a letter in the post, your computer needs an IP address
in order to receive data from another computer on the network. There are two methods by
which a computer can be assigned an IP address: automatically from a DHCP (Dynamic
Host Control Protocol) server or manually by using Static IP. The latter is the method
preferred for our purposes.
The advantage to using Static IP is that your PC will always have the same IP address.
During the boot process, Windows will see that the computer uses Static IP and will load
that data each and every time.
Before we go any further, let’s discuss IP addresses and subnets. An IP address consists
of 4 numbers separated by a period. Each of these numbers is called an octet, and any
one octet cannot exceed 255. The format of an IP address is as follows:
WWW 1st Octet
XXX 2nd Octet
YYY 3rd Octet
ZZZ 4th Octet
Here is an example of a legitimate IP address.
It is essential that all FX Teleport computers be in the same subnet. For our purposes, a
subnet is a collection of IP addresses whose first three octets are the same and the last
octet is different. On any subnet, the last octet must be unique to each machine. Using the
post example again, if every house on the street was number 10, the postal carrier would
not know which house to deliver a letter addressed to Number 10. However, if the houses
were numbers 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13; there is only one destination for a letter addressed to
Number 10. Applying that example to network communication, if a piece of data (called
a packet) is sent to a computer whose last octet is 192, the system would not be able to
deliver it if there was more than one ‘192’ on the subnet. The following table provides
IP Address Examples Description of Condition
Computer 1: 192.168.34.27 • In same subnet
Computer 2: 192.168.34.28 • Last octet different
• Works perfectly for FX Teleport
Computer 1: 192.168.34.27 • Not in same subnet (2nd octet
Computer 2: 126.96.36.199 different)
• Would not work for FX Teleport
without expensive routing gear
Computer 1: 192.168.34.27 • In same subnet
Computer 2: 192.168.34.27 • Last octet same
• Would not work at all, Windows
would give an error message stating
that an address conflict existed.
As you can see, the first example is exactly what we want. The last octet can be any
number between 1 and 253. The important thing to remember is that it must be different
on each computer in the subnet.
There are a few other items I want to mention briefly. They are part of our network and
need to be addressed, but I will not go into any detail about what they do.
• Subnet Mask: Used as part of the networking scheme. For our purposes, it will
always be 255.255.255.0
• Default Gateway: For our purposes, we will leave it blank
• DNS: For our purposes, we will leave it blank.
• WINS: For our purposes, we will leave it blank.
Assigning a Static IP Address to a Computer
We will now discuss how to assign static IP addresses to a Windows XP machine. While
other versions of Windows are similar, you may need to consult the documentation for
your version of Windows.
This procedure assumes the following:
1. A Network Interface Card (NIC) has been installed and properly configured.
2. The TCP/IP protocol – networking component has been installed.
3. That your PC is booted up, logged in, and that the account logged in has
administrative rights to the computer.
If any of the above criteria has not been satisfied, it must be addressed prior to attempting
1. Click the Start Button to launch the Start Menu.
2. Select Control Panel from the Start Menu.
3. From Control Panel, choose the Network Connections icon. (Note – if you are
using the Classic Start Menu mode under XP, you can select Settings from the
Start Menu. Then you can select Network Connections from the Settings menu.)
4. You should have window similar to the one shown above. Right-Click on the
Local Area Connection Icon and select Properties from the Right-Click Menu.
5. The Local Area Connection Properties Window shows the networking
components installed on the PC. Make sure there is a check mark next to Internet
Protocol TCP/IP. If there is not a check mark next to ‘Show icon in notification
area when connected’, go ahead and place one there. This is a good diagnostic
tool to have when you are troubleshooting a connection.
6. Click on the entry for Internet Protocol TCP/IP to highlight it and then click the
7. Using what you learned in the preceding section type in your IP address. Record
the IP address you assigned to this computer.
8. Make sure the subnet mask is sent to 255.255.255.0
9. Click the OK Button on the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties Window
10. Click the OK Button on the Local Area Connection Properties Window
11. In the Network Connections Window, click on the File Menu and choose the
12. Repeat this procedure as necessary for the other computers on the network. Make
sure to keep the machines in the same subnet and that the 4th octet is unique to
Networks and Network Cable
In its simplest terms a network is 2 or more PC’s connected together by a transmission
medium. For our purposes, that transmission medium is Ethernet cable of the Category
5e or Category 6 classification, and it connects the Network Interface Card (NIC) of the
PC to the network. If more than two PC’s are to be connected, then the NIC of each PC is
connected to an Ethernet switch with a straight-through Ethernet cable. If only two
PC’s are to be connected in the network and you don’t want to use an Ethernet switch, a
special Ethernet cable known as a crossover cable may be used to connect the NIC of
one PC to the NIC of the other. We will discuss each method of connection.
The connector on the end of any network cable (does not matter if it is a crossover or
straight-through) is called an RJ-45 plug. Conversely, the receptacle you plug the RJ-45
plug is called the RJ-45 jack. The diagrams below show the pin out of the RJ-45 Plug as
well as how to get your orientation with the jack. Being able to pin out the RJ-45 plug is
necessary if you need to determine what kind of cable you have.
Since the pin out must be taken from an established reference point, refer to the right-
most illustration below for orientation. If you hold the plug in your hand exactly as
shown in the illustration, you can determine the top, bottom, front, and back of the plug.
A couple of quick reference points are (1) that the cable comes into the back of the plug
and (2) the clip is on the bottom of the plug.
If you are holding the plug as shown in the right-most illustration you can rotate the plug
counter-clockwise 90 degrees to view the front of the plug. It should look similar to what
you see in the left-most illustration below.
Rotating the plug toward you 90 degrees will show you the top of the plug. If you rotate
the plug 90 degrees clockwise from this position, you will have the plug oriented as
shown in the middle illustration.
Connecting to the Network Using an Ethernet Switch
Connecting PC’s to an Ethernet switch is the most common method of networking at the
time of this writing. It is fast and easy to connect, and the equipment necessary to do it is
You will notice that I use the term Ethernet switch. This is very important, as there is
another device similar to an Ethernet switch that is known as an Ethernet hub. While
they may look similar, they are very different devices. You should avoid using Ethernet
hubs at all costs. They are, for our purposes, inefficient and cause more problems than
It was stated previously that PC’s are connected to an Ethernet switch by using a straight-
through Ethernet cable. The cable derives its name from the fact that the conductors are
connected in a straight-through configuration. In other words, the conductor connected to
pin 1 of the RJ-45 plug on one end is the same conductor that is connected to pin 1 of the
RJ-45 on the other end. Straight through cables are the most common cable found in most
In the illustration below, you can see that pin 1 of the RJ-45 plug on the left is connected
to a conductor whose jacket is white with an orange stripe. If you look at pin 1 of the RJ-
45 on the right, you will see that it too is connected to a conductor whose jacket is white
with an orange stripe. If you look at the other pins you will see that their conductors
match in the same, “straight-through” fashion.
From the illustrations in this section and from looking at your Ethernet cables, you can
see that the RJ-45 plug is a modular type plug that is very similar to the plug that you use
to connect your phone to its jack (note – the plug typically used on the phone is an RJ-11
plug). Connecting the PC to an Ethernet switch is done much the same was as connecting
your phone. Insert 1 end of the straight-through Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 jack on
your PC’s as shown below.
Once you have connected the straight-through Ethernet cable to your PC’s NIC, you are
ready to connect to your Ethernet switch. Insert the other end of the straight-through
Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 jack on your Ethernet switch as shown below.
You will need to repeat this connection procedure for each PC you want to place on the
network. As you may be able to see, data will pass from the source PC through its
Ethernet cable to the switch. Data will leave the switch and travel through the destination
PC’s Ethernet cable to the destination PC. This process can occur millions of times per
second based on the amount of data.
You can refer to Appendix A of this document for network diagrams using an Ethernet
Connecting a 10/100 Network Using a Crossover Cable
Connecting 2 PC’s together using a crossover cable is the simplest form of networking.
Providing your cable is made correctly, it is simple to hook up, and you do not incur the
additional expense of a switch. The downside to this method is that it is limited to 2 PC’s
in the network and the cabling is a little tricky.
As I am sure you have determined, the PC’s in this configuration are connected together
by a cable whose conductors are ‘crossed-over’. Specifically, the conductors that are
connected to the transmit pins on one end are connected to the receive pins on the other
end and the receive pins on the first end are connected to transmit pins on the second end.
This is similar to a phone call, when you speak into the microphone in your handset; your
voice is transmitted to the speaker in the handset of the phone of the person with whom
you are talking. Conversely, when they speak into their microphone, you hear it in your
In 10/100 Ethernet, only 4 of the conductors are used. They are connected to pins 1, 2, 3,
and 6 of the RJ-45 plug. The standard I prefer uses the orange pair and the green pair to
communicate. As you can see from the diagram above, on the left RJ-45 plug, pin 1 is
connected to the conductor that is white with an orange stripe. If you look at the right RJ-
45 plug you will see that the white with an orange strip conductor is connected to Pin 3.
If you look at pin 3 on the left RJ-45 plug you will see that the conductor connected to it
is white with a green stripe, which is connected to pin 1 of the RJ-45 plug on the right. In
other words, they have ‘crossed over’.
Notice that the blue and brown pairs are not crossed over. This is what changes between
Gigabit Ethernet crossover cables and 10/100 Ethernet crossover cables.
Connecting a Gigabit Network Using a Crossover Cable
The diagram above shows a Gigabit Ethernet crossover cable. Nothing has changed with
respect to the orange and green pairs. However, notice that pin 4 on the left RJ-45 plug is
connected to a conductor that is blue with a white stripe; while, pin 4 on the right RJ-45
plug is connected to a conductor that is white with a brown stripe. This is necessary
because the Gigabit standard uses all 8 conductors. As with a 10/100 crossover, the
transmit pins on each end must connect to their corresponding receive pins. The
difference is that there are more transmit and receive pins in Gigabit than 10/100. The
diagram below gives you a side-by-side comparison of each type of crossover cable.
Depending on your location, crossover cables of any variety may not available on the
shelf in your local retailer. There are several online venues that sell them, and, if you are
familiar with the tools for crimping the ends to Ethernet cable, the diagrams in this
document are designed to make it very easy to make your own.
Connecting two PC’s with a crossover cable is very simple. You simply plug one end of
your crossover into the NIC on one PC, and then you plug the other end of the crossover
into the NIC on the other PC.
Commissioning and Testing the
Network Connection and
Using the Link Light
We took a lot of time and covered a lot of details in the previous sections. If we take the
time to connect and configure our network right the first time, our testing goes quick. If
our testing fails, then we have to troubleshoot, and that is not any fun.
The most obvious test to run is to see if we have a link light on the NIC and the switch
(if one is being used). The link light is usually a green LED on Ethernet devices that
indicate that the device detects the network. If the link light is not on, then there is a
problem somewhere in the network. While the above diagram offers a general idea of
what a link light looks like, you need to refer to the documentation that came with your
NIC and Ethernet switch for specific details.
Pinging Another Computer
Once you have a link light on all of your devices, we need to make sure that we can pass
data between the machines. The way that we are going to do this is by using a built in test
called a ping. A ping is the network equivalent of one PC saying, “Do you hear me?” and
the other PC replying, “Why yes I do.” or giving no response at all.
The ping command works from the Windows Command Prompt. For those of you who
remember DOS, the command prompt environment is almost identical. The syntax is
fairly simple as well. You type the word ping, a space, and the IP address of the unit that
you want to ping. Note, the IP address you type is not the IP of the computer you are
using; it is the IP address of the remote computer. If you ping a computer from itself, you
will get a response, but that response is pretty much meaningless.
1. Click on the Start Button
2. From the Start Menu, select Run
3. In the Open Field, type cmd
4. Press the Enter key on the keyboard or click the OK Button.
5. When the Command Prompt Window appears, type ping, a space, and the IP
address of the computer you wish to ping. Refer to the diagram below for an
After you have finished typing the ping command press the Enter key. If your ping was
successful, you should get 4 replies followed by some statistics as shown below.
If you received a reply, then your PC’s are communicating properly. If you did not
receive a reply, the ping command should have returned an error message. The next
section delves into the two common error messages.
Troubleshooting Ping Error Messages
There are 2 common error messages that a failed ping will return, Request timed out and
Destination Host Unreachable. Of these two, Request timed out is the most common
error message you will see.
When you receive a Request timed out error message, it means that your computer found
the network, sent a ping to the address you specified, but did not receive a reply. When
you receive this message you should check the following:
• Are you sure you typed the correct IP address?
• Is the remote computer connected to the network?
• Is the connection the remote computer has to the network a good connection?
When you receive a Destination host unreachable error message, it means that your
computer did not find the network and was unable to send a ping. When you receive this
message you should check the following:
• Are you sure the Ethernet cable is properly connected to the NIC and switch?
• Is your NIC installed and configured correctly?
• Is the Ethernet switch powered up?
2 Computer Network using an Ethernet Switch
In this scenario, a straight through Ethernet cable connects each PC to the Ethernet
Multiple Computer Network using an Ethernet Switch
In this scenario, a straight through Ethernet cable connects each PC to the Ethernet
Two PC’s connected using a crossover cable
In this scenario, a crossover Ethernet cable connects two PC’s together.
Appendix B - Alternate
Configuration for Broadband
This diagram shows a network connected using an Ethernet switch. The network itself is
static IP. The broadband router supports static IP on the LAN side. However, on the side
that interfaces with the Cable / DSL Modem (called the WAN side) is DHCP. A
simplified explanation of the way this works is that the Broadband Router leases an IP
from your ISP’s DHCP server. It, in turn, ‘routes’ the computers on the LAN side when
they want to connect to the Internet.
The broadband router does add some additional expense to the network, but it also allows
you to keep a static IP network on the LAN side and still be able to use the Internet. Note
– not all broadband routers will support static IP on the LAN side. You should check this
before making a purchase.