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25U11F01.PPT

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25U11F01.PPT

  1. 1. 25U10 F01-LP1 Perform Signal Support Procedures for a Local Area Network
  2. 2. LOCAL AREA NETWORKS <ul><li>Identify network types and their common designs. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, Achieve a minimum score of 70 percent on a written exam. </li></ul>LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Identify common network devices and their use. </li></ul><ul><li>Install and trouble shoot a Local Area Network. </li></ul>
  3. 3. LOCAL AREA NETWORKS <ul><li>As a 25U you will be required to: </li></ul><ul><li>Install A Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Troubleshoot Networks </li></ul>
  4. 4. The term topology, or more specifically network topology, refers to the physical layout of computers, cables, and other components on the network. Network Layout Topology
  5. 5. <ul><li>All network designs stem from three basic topologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bus : Computers are connected in a row along a single cable segment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Star : Computers are connected to cable segments that branch out from a single point. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ring : Computers are connected to a series of cables that forms a loop. </li></ul></ul></ul>Network Layout
  6. 6. Network Layout BUS TOPOLOGY
  7. 7. STAR TOPOLOGY Network Layout
  8. 8. RING TOPOLOGY Network Layout
  9. 9. <ul><li>There are four different types </li></ul><ul><li>of networks </li></ul><ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN ) </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN) </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet </li></ul>Types of Networks
  10. 10. A network of computers intended to serve an area of only a few square kilometers (or less). Usually a LAN will service an office or building. Local Area Network Types of Networks
  11. 11. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Although a MAN is based on a LAN standard, it is a network that services a large area like a city, military post, or school campus. Types of Networks
  12. 12. Wide Area Network (WAN) A WAN is a network that covers a greater distance. It can be a collection of LAN’s and MAN’s networked over a large area or two computers networked over a large area. Types of Networks
  13. 13. The Internet The Internet, sometimes referred as a Global Area Network. To be more specific, The Internet is a network of networks. Types of Networks
  14. 14. <ul><li>Although there are four different </li></ul><ul><li>types of networks based on size, they </li></ul><ul><li>all stem from two general types of Networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN) </li></ul>Types of Networks
  15. 15. A backbone is a media used to connect smaller networks, or nodes, together to create larger networks. BACKBONE
  16. 16. 35th 1st COSCOM 82nd Airborne 18th Airborne Corps Ft. Bragg MAN LAN LAN Ft. Drum MAN Ft. Stewart MAN Ft. Campbell MAN LAN WAN LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN LAN Network Design Wide Area Network (WAN)
  17. 17. QUESTIONS
  18. 18. CHECK FOR LEARNING What is a Topology? Answer: The physical layout of networking components. Name the three basic topologies. Answer: Bus, Star and Ring Which network is intended to serve a few kilometers or less? Answer: Local Area Network (LAN) Which media is used to connect smaller networks together to create larger networks? Answer: Backbone
  19. 19. SIGNAL TRANSMISSION
  20. 20. Electrical Properties : Rules for how the message travels over transmission media. <ul><li>Attenuation </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-talk </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul>Terms To Understand SIGNAL TRANSMISSION
  21. 21. <ul><li>Attenuation: </li></ul><ul><li>The reduction of signal strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Talk: </li></ul><ul><li>Induction of an unwanted signal from one circuit into another. </li></ul>Simply an advanced form of noise! SIGNAL TRANSMISSION
  22. 22. <ul><li>Bandwidth: </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity of a particular media, the range of frequencies supported in cycles per second. </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity varies with changes in distance and based on the signaling. Capacity is discussed in bits per second (Bps). </li></ul>SIGNAL TRANSMISSION
  23. 23. QUESTIONS
  24. 24. CHECK FOR LEARNING What is attenuation? Answer: The reduction of signal strength
  25. 25. <ul><li>Bound: </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of a central conductor surrounded by a physical jacket. This offers security, reliability, and speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Bound Media (Cable): </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial </li></ul><ul><li>Unshielded Twisted Pair - UTP </li></ul><ul><li>Shielded Twisted Pair - STP </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Optics </li></ul>CABLE TYPES
  26. 26. A. Coaxial B. Twisted Pair: 1. Shielded 2. Unshielded C. Fiber Optic PRIMARY CABLE TYPES
  27. 27. Coaxial Cable
  28. 28. Baseband RG-58 Broadband COAXIAL CABLE
  29. 29. RG-58 COAXIAL CABLE Baseband Broadband A type of digital data transmission in which each medium (wire) carries only one signal, or channel , at a time. A broadband transmission enables a single wire to carry multiple signals simultaneously
  30. 30. RG-58 COAXIAL CABLE
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Most Popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 MBPS Data Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity to EMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to Install </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinnet .25 inch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects Directly to Network Interface Card (NIC) </li></ul></ul>RG-58 COAXIAL CABLE
  32. 32. Screw-on Crimp-on Compression RG-58 COAXIAL CABLE CONNECTORS
  33. 33. Connectors are the weakest link of a network! T-Connector Terminator COAXIAL CONNECTION HARDWARE
  34. 34. THINNET THICKNET Coaxial Cable
  35. 35. <ul><li>Coaxial Thinnet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Carry signal up to approximately 185 meters, before attenuation occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family of RG-58/AU (stranded) or /U(solid) cable has 50-ohm impedance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coaxial Thicknet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About .5 inch thick; 500 meter segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often used as a backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to work with but carries the signal farther </li></ul></ul>COAXIAL CABLE
  36. 36. Twisted Pair
  37. 37. <ul><ul><li>Comprised of pairs of twisted wire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted to cancel electrical noise from adjacent pairs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to Install. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If shielded then call shielded twisted pair. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Widely Used today . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified for use by categories. </li></ul></ul>TWISTED PAIR CABLE
  38. 38. <ul><li>Cat 1: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice Only </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cat 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Transmission - 4 MBS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cat 3: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Transmission - 10 MBS / 3 Twists per foot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cat 4: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Transmission - 16 MBS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cat 5: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Transmission - 100 MBS </li></ul></ul>UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (UTP) CABLE CATERGORIES
  39. 39. This is a wiring diagram that shows how the wires are installed in the RJ-45 connector. RJ45 CONNECTOR - (UTP)
  40. 40. <ul><li>To reduce sensitivity to electrical noise, STP has shielding. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents cross talk with foil wrap between and around pairs and internal twisting of the pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses RJ-45 connectors (8 wire) </li></ul>SHIELDED TWISTED PAIR (STP)
  41. 41. FIBER OPTICS
  42. 42. <ul><li>A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads </li></ul><ul><li>(fibers) to transmit data. </li></ul><ul><li>A fiber optic cable consists of a bundle of </li></ul><ul><li>glass threads, each of which is capable of </li></ul><ul><li>transmitting messages modulated onto </li></ul><ul><li>light waves. </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS
  43. 43. FIBER OPTIC CABLES BREAKDOWN
  44. 44. Advantages <ul><li>Has data rates from 100 MBS to over 2 GBS </li></ul><ul><li>No attenuation and is immune to EMI </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Very Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Not easy to install </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS
  45. 45. <ul><li>Use when data must be transmitted at very high speeds over long distances in a very secure media. </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to install. </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS CONSIDERATIONS
  46. 46. A backbone is a media used to connect smaller networks, or nodes, together to create larger networks. BACKBONE
  47. 47. WIRELESS NETWORKS <ul><li>The Wireless Environment: Emerging Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Capabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary connections to an existing, cabled network. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup to existing network. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extends networks beyond limits of cables. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Local area networks: use transmitters and receivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Extended local area networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile computing: uses public carriers. </li></ul>TYPES OF WIRELESS NETWORK
  49. 49. 1) Busy areas. (lobbies, reception area) 2) People who must travel while working. 3) Isolated areas and buildings. 4) Departments that move frequently. 5) Structures that are difficult to cable. USES FOR A WIRELESS NETWORK
  50. 50. QUESTIONS
  51. 51. CHECK FOR LEARNING What are the three primary types of cables? Answer: Coaxial, Twisted Pair and Fiber Optics Name the RG-58 coaxial connectors? Answer: Screw On, Compression and Crimp On True or False A Thicknet coaxial cable can carry a signal 650 meters before attenuation occurs. Answer: False
  52. 52. PRACTICAL EXERCISE # 1 CABLE CREATION
  53. 53. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING DEVICES Network Devices Network devices are equipment that is used to connect networks together and/or enhance network performance.
  54. 54. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING DEVICES Network Interface Card An expansion card installed in your computer that puts the data on the network media.
  55. 55. An expansion board you insert into a computer so the computer can be connected to a network. Can be either PCI or ISA and optional Plug and Play NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NIC)
  56. 56. Comes in 3 basic Connector types: RJ-45 – Twisted Pair – Star Topology RJ is abbreviated for Registered Jack BNC – Coaxial Cable – BUS Topology The acronym BNC is British Naval Connector. NETWORK INTERFACE CARDS (NIC)
  57. 57. ROLE OF THE NETWORK ADAPTER CARD <ul><li>Prepares data from the computer for the network cable. </li></ul><ul><li>Sends the data to another computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls the flow of data between the computer and the cabling system. </li></ul>
  58. 58. NIC DRIVERS <ul><li>Each Network Card has it’s own drivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems such as Windows often have generic drivers. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Has a connector for fiber optic connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be either PCI or ISA. </li></ul>FIBER OPTICS NETWORK CARD                                               
  60. 60. WIRELESS LAN ADAPTERS Wireless LAN adapters allow you to network computers without a direct connection or they can be directly connected.
  61. 61. Networking Devices HUB A device used in a star topology as the central point to connect all the computers together.
  62. 62. STACKING HUBS If you may need to add more Users to your network and do not have enough ports on your hub to support this, you may stack hubs to add more ports to your network. This is done by using a Crossover cable.
  63. 63. Repeater A device in a bus topology used to strengthen a signal and extend the network. Networking Devices
  64. 64. Router A network device, commonly referred as a smart link, used to connect networks together. A router will route data through networks to reach it’s destination. A Router uses a Rollover cable to connect from the Router to the computer or hub. Networking Devices
  65. 65. Network Switch A device, similar to a hub, used on a star topology to send a signal through to it’s destination. Networking Devices
  66. 66. QUESTIONS
  67. 67. CHECK FOR LEARNING Name the central point of a Star topology. Answer: Hub What device is used to strengthen the signal of the network? Answer: Repeater What does BNC stand for? Answer: British Navel Connector
  68. 68. Practical Exercise # 2 Design a Network
  69. 69. Before data can be sent over the network, the network adapter card must change it from a form the computer can understand to another form which can travel over a network cable. PREPARING THE DATA
  70. 70. NETWORK ADDRESSES <ul><li>The network adapter card also has to indicate its location, or address, to the rest of the network distinguishing it from all other cards on the network. </li></ul><ul><li>That address is referred to as the Media Access </li></ul><ul><li>Control (MAC) or MAC address. </li></ul>1234567 ABCDEFG
  71. 71. 1234567 ABCDEFG MAC ADDRESS LOOKING FOR
  72. 72. 1234567 ABCDEFG MAC ADDRESS SEND REPLY
  73. 73. SENDING AND CONTROLLING DATA Each card signals to the other indicating its parameters and accepts or adjusts to the other card's parameters. When all of the communication details have been determined, the two cards begin sending and receiving data.
  74. 74. PACKET CONSTRUCTION
  75. 75. Data tends to exist as rather large files. However, networks cannot operate if computers put large amounts of data on the cable at one time. THE FUNCTIONS OF PACKETS IN NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS
  76. 76. PACKET STRUCTURE <ul><li>Packets may contain several types of data including: </li></ul><ul><li>Information, such as messages or files. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain types of computer control data and commands. </li></ul><ul><li>Session control codes, such as error correction, that indicate the need for a retransmission. </li></ul>
  77. 77. PACKET COMPONENTS <ul><li>All packets have certain components in common. </li></ul><ul><li>These include: </li></ul><ul><li>A source address (Sender) </li></ul><ul><li>Data that is intended for transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>A destination address (Recipient) </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions (How to pass data) </li></ul><ul><li>Information(Connect/Reassemble packets) </li></ul><ul><li>Error checking information </li></ul>
  78. 78. Packet Construction HEADER DATA TRAILER
  79. 79. HEADER The HEADER includes: - An alert signal to indicate that the packet is being transmitted. - The source address. - The destination address. -Clock information to synchronize transmission .
  80. 80. TRAILER The exact content of the TRAILER varies depending on the communication method, or protocol. However, the trailer usually contains an error checking component called a cyclical redundancy check (CRC). The CRC is a number produced by a mathematical calculation on the packet at its source. When the packet arrives at its destination, the calculation is redone.
  81. 81. DATA This is the actual data being sent. This part of the packet can be of various sizes depending on the network. The data section on most networks varies from 512 bytes to 4k.
  82. 82. <ul><li>C arrier S ense M ultiple A ccess / C ollision D etection </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol for how Network devices respond when two devices attempt to use a data channel at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>After detecting a collision, a device waits a random delay time and then attempts to re-transmit the message . </li></ul>CSMA / CD
  83. 83. QUESTIONS
  84. 84. CHECK FOR LEARNING What are the three parts of Packet Construction? Answer: Header, Data and Trailer Where does the MAC address come from? Answer: It is factory written on the network interface card What is the purpose of CSMA / CD? Answer: To detect and prevent collisions of data packets on the network.
  85. 85. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>Protocols are rules and procedures for communicating across a network. </li></ul>
  86. 86. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>How protocols work: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Data transmission is a step-by-step process. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Each step has its own protocol, or rules. </li></ul>
  87. 87. THE OSI MODEL In 1978, the International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications that described a network architecture for connecting dissimilar devices. In 1984, the ISO released a revision of this model and called it the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model.
  88. 88. THE OSI MODEL <ul><li>Protocols in a Layered Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols have to work together to ensure data is prepared, transferred, received, and acted upon. </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol stacks: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Each OSI layer has its own protocol (rules). </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Combination is called a protocol stack. </li></ul><ul><li>(c ) Lower layers determine how vendors design hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Upper layers define rules for communication. </li></ul><ul><li>(e) The higher the layer is in the stack, the more complex its tasks and their associated protocols. </li></ul>
  89. 89. PACKET APPLICATION (OSI MODEL) 1 PHYSICAL LAYER 2 DATA LINK LAYER 3 NETWORK LAYER 4 TRANSPORT LAYER 5 SESSION LAYER 6 PRESENTATION LAYER 7 APPLICATION LAYER C Converts data to a program format Completion of packet transmission Performs error checking of data(protocols) Contains destination IP address Contains destination MAC address Receives raw data from the wire Places packets into a file format
  90. 90. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>Sending computer: </li></ul><ul><li>Its protocol breaks data into packets that the protocol can handle. </li></ul><ul><li>Adds addressing information. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares and sends data out onto the network cable. </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving computer: </li></ul><ul><li>Must use same protocol to take packet off the cable. </li></ul>
  91. 91. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>Both computers must process packets following exactly the same procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules for communicating in a particular LAN environment, such as, Ethernet are known as Network Protocols . </li></ul>
  92. 92. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>ROUTABLE vs. NONROUTABLE Protocols: </li></ul><ul><li>Data sent from one LAN to another is routed. </li></ul><ul><li>Routable protocols can navigate to a specific address, i.e. TCP/IP. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-routable protocols broadcast to everyone. </li></ul>
  93. 93. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>Allows network protocols and card to be mixed. </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more protocols can be bound to one card. </li></ul><ul><li>Operating System (OS) will attempt to use the protocols in the order they are bound. </li></ul>The Binding Process
  94. 94. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>IP (Internet Protocol): TCP/IP protocol for packet forwarding and routing. </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols are implemented and removed in much the same way that drivers are added and removed. </li></ul>
  95. 95. QUESTIONS
  96. 96. CHECK ON LEARNING What are protocols? Answer: They are rules or standards that allow computers to communicate with each other. Which OSI layer performs error checking of data? Answer: Layer 4 (The Transport Layer). How many layers does the OSI model consist of? Answer: 7
  97. 97. TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL / INTERNET PROTOCOL TCP/IP
  98. 98. TCP/IP <ul><li>Basic communication language or protocol for the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Two layered program: </li></ul><ul><li>1)Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>2) Internet Protocol </li></ul>
  99. 99. TCP/IP <ul><li>Two Layers </li></ul><ul><li>T ransmission C ontrol P rotocol/ I nternet P rotocol: </li></ul><ul><li>TCP: Manages the assembling of a message or file. </li></ul><ul><li>IP: Handles the address to see where to forward the message. </li></ul>
  100. 100. IP ADDRESSES 148.43.200.16 LET’S TALK IP ADDRESSES
  101. 101. IP ADDRESSES Think of an IP address like you would your mailbox address. It represents your computer across a network like your house address represents you across the country. 148.43.200.16
  102. 102. IP ADDRESSES <ul><li>IP address: An address used to determine a location of a host or other computer device. </li></ul>148.43.200.16
  103. 103. IP ADDRESS BREAKDOWN This address is broken down into what we call octets. Each octet has a possible 256 numbers ranging from 0-255. 148.43.200.16 0-255 0-255 0-255 0-255 148 43 200 16
  104. 104. IP Addressing In a TCP/IP network there are 5 classes of IP address. Each is identified by the number in the first octet. Class A: 1-126 Class B: 128-191 (The military uses class B) Class C: 192-223 Class D: 224-239 (Experimental purposes) Class E: 240-255 (Experimental purposes) NOTE: 127 IS RESERVED AS A LOOPBACK ADDRESS FOR TESTING PURPOSES
  105. 105. IP Addressing 148.17.56.16 10010100.00010001.00111000.00010000 NETWORK HOSTS IP addresses are broken down into 2 parts; the Network portion and the Host/User. The computer reads these IP addresses as a series of 1’s and 0’s.
  106. 106. IP Addressing <ul><li>64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 </li></ul>1’s are considered ON and 0’s are OFF ADD the numbers turned on to get the number for that octet. 128 + 16 + 4 = 148
  107. 107. IP Addressing 148.43.202.3 148.43.202.2 148.43.202.1 148.43.202.4 148.43.201.2 148.43.201.1 148.43.200.4 148.43.200.3 148.43.200.2 148.43.200.1 Each Device must have a unique number to identity itself
  108. 108. 147.51.175.0 Network Address 147.51.175.1 Hosts/Users 147.51.175.254 147.51.175.255 Broadcast 255.255.255.0 Sub mask Every network must have a network IP Address and a broadcast IP Address. The Network and Broadcast IP addresses are not issued to the Users, but must encapsulate all User IP addresses. IP Addressing
  109. 109. IP Addressing exercise Network Network IP Broadcast IP 197.10.100.0 thru ? ? 197.10.100.255 147.55.126.16 thru ? ? 147.55.126.31 192.18.0.0 thru ? ? 192.18.255.255
  110. 110. IP Addressing answers Network Network IP Broadcast IP 197.10.100.0 thru 197.10.100.0 197.10.100.255 197.10.100.255 147.55.126.16 thru 147.55.126.16 147.55.126.31 147.55.126.31 192.18.0.0 thru 192.18.0.0 192.18.255.255 192.18.255.255
  111. 111. Subnet Masking A subnet further breaks down the block of IP’s that you have been given from the ISP. Example: If a company is given 172.16.0.0 as their block of IP addresses, they may elect to connect all their computers to the single network, which can result in poor network performance. What is subnet masking?
  112. 112. One option of networking is to connect all workstations to one network. Subnet Masking Network 172.16.0.0 172.16.0.0
  113. 113. If you break down the network, you could limit the traffic on the other networks. Subnet Masking Network 172.16.0.0 172.16.1.0 172.16.2.0 172.16.3.0 172.16.4.0
  114. 114. Subnet Masking: RULES 1. Bits=Number of bits turned on in the Host/User octet 2. Subnet=Sum of mask bits turned on in each octet 3. Mask Bits=Number of bits turned on in all Octets 4. # of Subnets=2 to the power of the number of bits turned on, minus 2(network & broadcast) 5. Host/User=Number of users minus 2 (network & broadcast)
  115. 115. Subnet Masking <ul><li>64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul><ul><li>64 32 16 8 4 2 1 </li></ul>When starting to Subnet, to make things easier, draw this chart out first. This chart represents each octet of your IP address.
  116. 116. Subnet Masking Bits Subnet Mask Mask Bits # of Subnets # of Host/User # of Bits turned on in the Host/User octet of the IP address Sum all Bits turned on in each octet # of Bits turned on in all 4 octets Formula: 2 to the power Bits turned on in the Host/User octet Minus 2 The first Bit turned on in the Host/User octet minus 2 (Network and Broadcast) NOTE: After drawing the previous chart, draw this chart.
  117. 117. 192.50.100.0 255.255.255.0 25 Users Using your 2 charts drawn from the previous slides, we will subnet this one IP Address and get the required amount of Host/User IP addresses and Subnet Mask. Subnet Masking
  118. 118. Bits Subnet Mask Mask Bits # of Subnets # of Host/User 3 255.255.255.224 /27 6 30 NETWORK 192.50.100.32 USERS 192.50.100.33 192.50.100.62 BROADCAST 192.50.100.63 Subnet Masking answers
  119. 119. QUESTIONS
  120. 120. CHECK FOR LEARNING What is an IP address? Answer: An address used to determine a location of a host or other computer device. What is the range of each octet in an IP address? Answer: Each octet of an IP address has a range of 0-255. What are the 2 parts of an IP address? Answer: Network and Hosts.
  121. 121. CHECK FOR LEARNING What does the acronym TCP/IP stand for? Answer: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol TCP/IP is made up of how many layers? Answer: 2 The number 192 in the first octet of an IP address signifies what class of IP address? Answer: Class C
  122. 122. Practical exercise # 3 192.100.50.0 255.255.255.0 50 Users
  123. 123. INSTALLING A NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) DRIVER
  124. 124. PREPARATION <ul><li>Authorization - User Name and Password </li></ul><ul><li>Network Card Drivers - Floppy Disk or CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>IP Addresses - Computer, Subnet Mask, Gateway, DNS Service Search Order, and WINS Server </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Name - Name that computer will be known as across network </li></ul><ul><li>Workgroup Name or Domain Name </li></ul>Items to have ready prior to installation:
  125. 125. NETWORK CARD IRQ AND I/O <ul><li>Windows NT does not have a Device Manager to resolve hardware conflicts or to make changes to the IRQ or I/O range. </li></ul><ul><li>To change the IRQ and/or the I/O range of a device, you must run the diagnostic program for the device. </li></ul>
  126. 126. METHOD OF INSTALLING EXPANSION BOARD DRIVERS <ul><li>Almost all expansion board drivers can be installed on Windows NT operating system by: </li></ul><ul><li>Floppy Disk CD-ROM Network Manufacturer Website </li></ul><ul><li>For example, you can not install a NIC driver from the network because you are not connected to the network. </li></ul>
  127. 127. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS To begin installing your network settings, Right click on the Network Neighborhood Icon and Select Properties.
  128. 128. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Network Neighborhood Properties window select the Adapters Tab.
  129. 129. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS If there are any Network adapters, highlight them and click Remove. Then Reboot your Computer. Once Reboot is complete return to the Adapters Tab. If no Adapters are present, Click the ADD button.
  130. 130. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS The Select Network Adapter window appears, Click: Have Disk
  131. 131. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Insert your Drivers disk into your Floppy Drive and Ensure that there is an A: in the location box. Click OK
  132. 132. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS The Select OEM Option window appears with the Network Card type in the window. Click OK.
  133. 133. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Input Ethernet ID window click on SKIP. This option is only used if more than one Network Adapter is installed.
  134. 134. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS The adapter type window appears, for Realtek RTL 8019 select ISA, for Realtek RTL 8029 select PCI. Click OK
  135. 135. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Windows NT will begin copying files necessary for the installation of the Network Adapter.
  136. 136. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS The Adapter window now appears with the appropriate Adapter installed. Click the Bindings Tab.
  137. 137. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Windows NT will now Bind your Network Adapter to the Protocols installed.
  138. 138. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Binding Tab click the Close button.
  139. 139. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS You are now taken to the Microsoft TCP/IP Properties window. Input your IP Address, Subnet Mask, and Default Gateway. This information is located in your Student Position Binder.
  140. 140. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS In the DNS Tab enter your DNS addresses by clicking the ADD button. Ensure that your Domain Address is Gordon.army.mil.
  141. 141. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Click the WINS Address Tab. Enter your WINS Address. Click the Apply button then Click OK.
  142. 142. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS You are now prompted to Restart, click YES to restart. Once you have Restarted, Log on as Administrator and go to your Desktop.
  143. 143. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Windows NT Desktop, Right Click on Network Neighborhood and Select Properties.
  144. 144. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Network Properties Window, Click on the Change button.
  145. 145. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Identification changes window, change your computer name to your Host Name, I.E. wsf175___. This will be the computer name seen across the Network. Click OK.
  146. 146. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS You are now informed that the computer name has been successfully changed but a Restart is necessary. Click OK.
  147. 147. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Close out the Network Properties window by clicking on the Close button.
  148. 148. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Click Yes to Restart your computer now. Once Restart is complete Log on as Administrator.
  149. 149. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Windows NT Desktop Right Click the Network Neighborhood Icon and select Properties.
  150. 150. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Identification Tab click on the Change Button.
  151. 151. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Click the Radio button next to Domain and enter 52div Check mark the box for Create a Computer account in the Domain and enter your User name and Password. Click OK.
  152. 152. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Welcome to the 52DIV window click OK. Click OK at the Identification Changes window if necessary.
  153. 153. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS At the Network Identification window click the Close button.
  154. 154. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS You are prompted to Restart, Click the YES button. After restart is complete log on as Administrator and go to the Windows NT Desktop.
  155. 155. INSTALLING NETWORK SETTINGS Double Click the Network Neighborhood Icon and you are now able to see all computers within your Domain.
  156. 156. QUESTIONS ?
  157. 157. Practical Exercise # 4 Install Network Settings and Join the Domain
  158. 158. Troubleshooting the Network Introduction Applying a logical process is the key to any kind of troubleshooting. There are multiple ways to fix any problem. The better you understand a problem solving process, the easier it is to fix the problem.
  159. 159. Fixing any problem can be simple. You are given a big problem. Break the big problem down into several little problems. Utilize a network diagram to give yourself an overlooking view of the network. Use a logical process to identify smaller portions of the network to fix first. Troubleshooting the Network
  160. 160. HUB HUB A large network that has a problem Troubleshooting the Network
  161. 161. HUB HUB Divide it into two smaller networks Fix the two smaller networks individually Troubleshooting the Network
  162. 162. <ul><li>We use troubleshooting tools to assist </li></ul><ul><li>in isolating network faults. The two </li></ul><ul><li>tools most valuable are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PING (TCP/IP DOS Command) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing Equipment </li></ul></ul>Troubleshooting the Network
  163. 163. PING : Tests connectivity from the computer to the distant end. <ul><li>SYNTAX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PING IP Address </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PING 147.51.169.7 </li></ul></ul>Troubleshooting the Network
  164. 164. To use the Ping Command, open the Ms-dos command Prompt by choosing Start, Programs and Ms Dos Command Prompt Troubleshooting the Network
  165. 165. This ping demonstrates good connectivity to the computer acd4 Troubleshooting the Network
  166. 166. This ping demonstrates loss of connectivity to the computer Troubleshooting the Network
  167. 167. Test Equipment : Specialized devices to test cables and equipment for serviceability and correct installation. LAN Cable Tester : Specialized devices to test LAN cables for correct construction and serviceability. Some can test LAN data flow. Troubleshooting the Network
  168. 168. <ul><li>Detailed records are a tremendous aid in troubleshooting. Records you should keep include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of all hardware, to include installation dates and configuration details. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A network diagram. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service agreements and warranty information, to include telephone numbers of vendors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A history of past problems. </li></ul></ul>Troubleshooting the Network
  169. 169. QUESTIONS
  170. 170. CHECK ON LEARNING What is the PING command used for? Answer : To check connectivity from the computer to the distant end. What kind of command is PING? Answer : PING is a TCP/IP DOS Command.
  171. 171. Practical Exercise # 5 Perform Troubleshooting Techniques

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