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Technology Trends - IP Storage Networking - Nov 2003


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Technology Trends - IP Storage Networking - Nov 2003

  1. 1. Technology Trends IP Storage Networking
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>IP Storage Networking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Storage Networking Solutions </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. IP Storage Networking <ul><li>Analyst Perspective &quot;It's not a NAS versus SAN world—it's both. iSCSI is a way to utilize existing, inexpensive infrastructure to carry block storage. There's no question that iSCSI enables networked storage for the masses.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Duplessie, Founder, Enterprise Storage Group </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer Perspective &quot;It’s important to understand that iSCSI is not about replacing Fibre Channel. However, customers do want to extend the benefits of storage networking to parts of their infrastructure where SAN technology has not been economically feasible. That’s where the majority of their data is. And that’s where iSCSI comes in.“ </li></ul><ul><li>- Dave Hitz, Founder and EVP, NetApp </li></ul>
  4. 4. IP Storage Networking History <ul><li>NAS was first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File-oriented services providing cross-platform access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not appropriate for applications that require block-level access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Databases such as Oracle and MS Exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibre Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developed to solve problems of traditional channel protocols (SCSI, ESCON) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive and requires specialized expertise </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. IP Storage Networking History <ul><li>IP-based Storage Networking developed to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage the ubiquity of Ethernet and IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the cost and complexity of FC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foundation technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet: IEEE 802.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP: IETF through RFCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCSI: NCITS T10 Committee (T11 for FC) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. IP Storage Networking History <ul><li>False-start in 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM and Cisco pushed it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IBM had the i200 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why was it delayed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibre Channel turned out to be very good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A requirement for IPSec was added to the specification and it took some time to finish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Protocols developed by IP Storage Forum of IETF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FCIP, iFCP, iSCSI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All 3 ratified in Jan/Feb 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All used to transport SCSI protocol commands </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. FCIP <ul><li>Fibre Channel over IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First on the scene but interest declining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows SAN-to-SAN connectivity by providing a FC tunnel over an IP network (LAN/WAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP Protocol is required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN/WAN is invisible to SAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAN is invisible to LAN/WAN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems in LAN/WAN may trigger FC error handling routines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time-Out is a problem and getting the TOV values right is difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FCIP devices responsible for re-establishing broken links </li></ul></ul>Makes it easy to implement
  8. 8. FCIP tunneling between SANs IP WAN Server FC Disk FC Tape FC Switch Server Server Server FC Disk FC Tape FC Switch Server Server Tunnel Session FCIP Device FCIP Device <ul><li>CNT is a primary provider </li></ul><ul><li>Can be implemented as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP Router Blade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FC Switch Port </li></ul></ul>Source: IP SANs by Tom Clark, Pg 127
  9. 9. iFCP <ul><li>Gateway to gateway protocol for providing FC Services to FC devices over an IP network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used in place of FC fabrics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why it was not embraced by FC Switch Vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices plug into F-Ports in iFCP switches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses TCP and Translates FC Address (24-bit) into IP Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP network problems only affect the 2 devices communicating as opposed to the entire fabric as with FCIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nishan (McData) developed one of the few commercially successful products based on iFCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check out: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. iFCP – a fabric example IP Network Fibre Channel Device Address IP Address Mapping Fibre Channel Device Domain IP Fabric Fibre Channel Traffic Control Data iFCP Frames iFCP Gateway Region iFCP Gateway Region Source: IP SANs by Tom Clark, Pg 127 iFCP Switch iFCP Switch Fibre Channel Device N-Port Fibre Channel Device N-Port Fibre Channel Device N-Port Fibre Channel Device N-Port F-Port F-Port iFCP Layer FCP Portal F-Port F-Port iFCP Layer FCP Portal
  11. 11. mFCP <ul><li>UDP/IP variant of iFCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not use flow-controls of the TCP layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent to FC Class 3 Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased performance over iFCP </li></ul><ul><li>Possible to use mFCP within the Data Center (where network is clean) and iFCP between Data Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Contributed as Open Source by Nishan Systems </li></ul>
  12. 12. iSCSI <ul><li>Eliminates FC from the storage networking equation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-nodes implement SCSI for block data transfer over IP networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliminates intelligent switches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-nodes responsible for connection establishment and integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many features built into protocol to accommodate IP networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Error handling, security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very few extensions to the standard SCSI protocol </li></ul>
  13. 13. iSCSI – Protocol Stack SCSI iSCSI Data Sync TCP Lower Level Function (IPSec) IP Link IP Network Initiator SCSI iSCSI Data Sync TCP Lower Level Function (IPSec) IP Link Target SCSI Application Protocol iSCSI Protocol TCP/IP Protocol Source: IP SANs by Tom Clark, Pg 141
  14. 14. iSCSI Naming Conventions <ul><li>Nodes on the network are known by its IP Address/TCP Port Combo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Network Portal” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nodes also have a human-readable name – iSCSI Node Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can have an alias </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WWN convention accommodated by IEEE extended unique identifier (eiu) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eiu.0300732A32590D26 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. iSNS <ul><li>Internet Storage Name Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by iSCSI and iFCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of FC and IP discovery techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FC: SNS in switches, zoning, state change notifications (SCN) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP: DNS, SLP LDAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery Domain Sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to FC Zoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also keep and exchange public and private keys used by nodes (X.509) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented in Centralized iSNS servers, IP Storage Switches and Target Devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nishan supplied iSNS protocol as Open Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently in final stages of ratification by IETF </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. IP Storage Networking Security & Quality of Service Implementations <ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery Domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalent to Soft Zoning in FC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Control Lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LUN Masking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VLAN Tagging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPSec, CHAP, SRP, Kerberos, SPKM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality of Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic Prioritization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Service (TOS IP header field) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiated Service (DiffServ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. iSCSI Initiators Software-based <ul><li>Best for lightly loaded servers generating <40MBs </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied by OS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W2K, WXP, W2K3, NetWare, Redhat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft’s support in June 2003 accelerated acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplied by Cisco for Solaris, AIX, HP-UX </li></ul><ul><li>PYX Technologies supplies advanced iSCSI software stack with Level 2 Error Recovery </li></ul>
  18. 18. iSCSI Initiators Software-based <ul><li>Uses standard NIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes implementation practically free on the Server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iSCSI and TCP processing done by Host CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be significant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires workaround for Windows Dynamic Disks </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. iSCSI Initiators Software performance considerations <ul><li>Cisco Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) MS Exchange with 4000 users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generated 20MBs server to storage thruput (no problem!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) OLTP/DW environment with 150 users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performed the same as Fibre Channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network access: 1MBs thruput uses 8Mhz processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage access: 1MBs thruput uses 5Mhz processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Backup server moving from network to tape drive at 30MBs each way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires 390Mhz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tape = 30 * 5 = 150Mhz </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network = 30 * 8 = 240Mhz </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve full duplex Gig-E, consumes full 2Ghz processor </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. iSCSI Initiators Hardware-based <ul><li>Best for strained servers </li></ul><ul><li>Offloads TCP/IP processing to Adapter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP Offload Engine (TOE) - TNIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General purpose – not necessarily optimized for Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft does not yet approve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offloads iSCSI and TCP/IP processing to Adapters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage NIC (SNIC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft iSCSI-Ready Branding program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most adapter vendors building TNICs and SNICs </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of providing wire-speeds when other bottlenecks are eliminated </li></ul>
  21. 21. iSCSI Initiators Hardware Performance considerations <ul><li>Adaptec Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generated 130MBs, full duplex using 64kb I/O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumed only 5% CPU on 1Ghz processor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>iReady Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used IOMeter test suite on Pentium II with 1500 byte I/O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Initiator: 30000 IOPS @ 75% CPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software Initiator: 12000 IOPS @ 90% CPU </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. iSCSI Initiators Summary Host SCSI iSCSI TCP/IP Ethernet Standard NIC TCP Offload Engine (TOE) TNIC Storage NIC (SNIC) Operating System Application Software Initiators Hardware Initiators
  23. 23. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI Storage Router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge iSCSI to Fibre Channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No virtualization of the storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best in environments with an existing FC SAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HP StorageWorks SR2122 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 iSCSI & 2 FC ports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco SN5420 & SN5428 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 iSCSI & 8 FC ports </li></ul></ul></ul>iSCSI Server W2K FC Disk FC Tape Ethernet Switch iSCSI Server Solaris iSCSI Server Linux Storage Router iSCSI & Ethernet Fibre Channel
  24. 24. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI Storage Bridge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge iSCSI to SCSI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good to get SCSI tape drives into IP SAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has to bridge SCSI-2 (tape) to SCSI-3 (iSCSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATTO IPBridge 2500 C/R/D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of iSCSI and SCSI ports </li></ul></ul></ul>iSCSI Server W2K SCSI Disk SCSI Tape Ethernet Switch iSCSI Server Solaris NAS Server Storage Bridge iSCSI or NDMP & Ethernet SCSI
  25. 25. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI Storage Concentrator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge plus Storage Provisioning appliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves volumes to iSCSI servers from SCSI or FC Disk Arrays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows stranded servers to participate in SAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provides a way to reuse older JBOD or other Disk Arrays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>StoneFly’s i3000 Storage Concentrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of iSCSI, SCSI and FC ports </li></ul></ul></ul>iSCSI Server W2K SCSI or FC Disk Ethernet Switch iSCSI Server Solaris iSCSI Server Linux Storage Concentrator SCSI or FC iSCSI & Ethernet Physical Disk Logical Disk
  26. 26. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI Storage Switch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’ve tried my hardest, but I just cannot figure out what this thing is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s a combo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet switch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibre channel switch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge and/or Router </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storage Virtualization engine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SANRAD V-Switch 3000 </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI Storage Array </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just like today’s SCSI or FC Arrays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14 SATA drives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dual iSCSI controllers (active-passive) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provisioning, SnapShot, Replication, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for ‘net new’ storage implementations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EqualLogic PeerStorage Array </li></ul></ul>iSCSI Server W2K iSCSI Disk Ethernet Switch iSCSI Server Netware iSCSI Server Linux iSCSI & Ethernet
  28. 28. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI Tape Library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited deployment to date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SpectraLogic first to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SpectraLogic 2K Tape Library </li></ul></ul>From:
  29. 29. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI and NAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NetApp supports iSCSI as a free download for their F800 and FAS900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for block-level support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oracle and Exchange </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>iSCSI Server W2K SCSI or FC Disk Ethernet Switch iSCSI Server Netware Standard File Server Ethernet NAS Filer SCSI or FC iSCSI Block- Level traffic IP File - Level traffic
  30. 30. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>IP on Fibre Channel Switches/Directors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IP Storage Services Module on MDS 9000 Series </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8-port card supports both iSCSI and FCIP simultaneously on each Gigabit Ethernet port </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McData </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired Nishan and is marketing their ‘edge’ devices for iFCP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not find any plans to integrate into directors/switches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brocade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Multiprotocol fabric routing services that will allow for iSCSI to FC bridging and FCIP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using Edge Router for FCIP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI on Enterprise-class Arrays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HDS has announced iSCSI blade for 9900V series arrays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will provide for TrueCopy over IP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partnering with McData </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMC already provides iSCSI connectivity across their Symmetrix DMX line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM had the TotalStorage IP Storage 200i until it killed it in 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaming with Cisco </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. IP Storage Networking Solutions <ul><li>iSCSI for BladeServers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal solution for this type of environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>since often, each blade has only an ethernet port and a small, on-board hard drive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun has blessed the EqualLogic PeerStorage Array for the B1600 Blade Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for booting from IP SAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without iSCSI, BladeServers relegated to using NAS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least Sun’s was….. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. iSCSI Best Practices <ul><li>Start with non-mission critical application </li></ul><ul><li>Put iSCSI at the edge and FC in the core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For an enterprise-class environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create a separate IP SAN from regular LAN </li></ul><ul><li>For Small/Medium Businesses, can skip FC for Storage Consolidation and use iSCSI </li></ul><ul><li>Decide early who is responsible for IP SAN </li></ul>
  34. 34. iSCSI Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>