PROFINET – Network Infrastructure


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PROFINET – Network Infrastructure

  1. 1. PROFINET – Network Infrastructure
  2. 2. PROFINET Network Infrastructure Network Infrastructure • Office vs. Industrial Network • Topologies • Installation • Cabling and Components Network Installation
  3. 3. Differences between Office and Industrial networks Office Industry Location Air-conditioned offices Rough environment Plant commissioning Installation Network specialists personnel Topology Tree / Star Plant-specific Second to minute range Network downtimes < Availability accepted 300 ms High, switches with a Low, switches Device density large number of ports with few ports By specially-trained Part of plant monitoring Network monitoring personnel
  4. 4. Ethernet networks in the office • Tree structured network topologies following ISO/IEC 11801 with application independent cabling systems Building 1 Building 2 FD FD FD FD BD BD BD = Building Distributor, FD = Floor Distributor
  5. 5. Twisted Pair • 10BaseT - 10Mbps base band twisted pair system – Category 5 Unshielded twisted pair – Maximum 100m – RJ-45 Connector – Star topology
  6. 6. Fiber Optic • 10BaseF – 10Mbps Base band Fiber Optic system – Requires 2 strands of Fiber cable – Maximum 2000m (except for 10BaseFP- 500m) – ST Connectors – Singlemode vs. multimode
  7. 7. Half and Full-Duplex Explained Half-duplex mode – Transmission of data in only one direction at a time – i.e. walkie-talkie PC PC Transmit Transmit TX+ TX+ 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 TX- TX- Receive Receive RX+ RX+ RX- RX-
  8. 8. Half and Full-Duplex Explained Full-duplex mode – Transmission of data in two directions simultaneously – i.e. telephone – Full-duplex is a requirement for PROFINET IO PC Switch PC Transmit Receive Transmit TX+ RX+ RX+ TX+ 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 TX- RX- RX- TX- Receive Receive RX+ TX+ TX+ RX+ RX- TX- TX- RX- Transmit
  9. 9. Fast Ethernet • 100Base-TX - 100Mbps base band twisted pair system – Cat 5 UTP or Type 1 STP cabling – Maximum 100m • 100Base-T4 – Uses 4 pairs of Cat 3, 4, or 5 UTP • 100Base-FX – 100Mbps Fiber Optic system – Requires 2 strands of Fiber cable – SC Connectors
  10. 10. Gigabit Ethernet • 1000Base-T - 1000Mbps base band twisted pair system – Uses 4 pairs of Cat 5 UTP or Cat 6 – RJ-45 Connector • 1000Base-X – Identifier for 3 media types – 1000Base-SX (Short wavelength) – 1000Base-LX (Long wavelength) – 1000Base-CX (short copper jumper) – SC and MT-RJ connectors
  11. 11. Differences between Office and Industrial networks Office Industry Location Air-conditioned offices Rough environment Plant commissioning Installation Network specialists personnel Topology Tree / Star Plant-specific Second to minute range Network downtimes < Availability accepted 300 ms High, switches with a Low, switches Device density large number of ports with few ports By specially-trained Part of plant monitoring Network monitoring personnel
  12. 12. Ethernet networks in Industrial environment Campus Distributor CD CD Building Building Office Building BD BD Production Distributor Machine Floor MD MD Distributor Distributor FD Floor 1 FD Floor 2 Machine 1 Machine 2 • fixed basic installation - • Individual networking degree for any variable device connections machine / plant • Star and tree structures • Star, ring and line structures
  13. 13. Industrial Environment Factors to consider Office Area Production and Field Areas Moderate Temperatures Extreme temperatures Low Dust burden High dust burden No moisture Moisture possible Virtually no vibrations Vibrating Machines Low EMC burden High EMC burden Low mechanical danger Danger of mechanical damage Low UV radiation UV burden in outer area Virtually no chemical danger Chemical burden from oily or aggressive atmospheres
  14. 14. Network Topologies STAR TREE RING BUS
  15. 15. PROFINET networks Tree and Star topology • PROFINET supports both tree and star topologies • Easy Administration of the network • Flexible addition / removal of stations • Favorable network component cost per port through high port density
  16. 16. PROFINET networks Ring Topology • PROFINET supports the ring topology for high availability (redundancy) – For example, if a cable or device fails, then the system will automatically segment itself to a ‘line’ topology keeping the rest of the system active
  17. 17. PROFINET networks Line Topology • PROFINET supports the line topology for minimal cabling overhead • Embedded Switches in the devices (external switches optional) • Allows topologies like classic fieldbus systems
  18. 18. Contents of the PROFINET Installation Guide • Network components • Network structures • Installation Wiring – Plugs – Cables • Installation hints PROFINET Installation Guide Part 1 & 2
  19. 19. Installation & Wiring - Copper • Transmission as defined in IEC 8802-3 (100 BASE-TX) • Conducting wires – Twisted Pair as defined in IEC 11801, CAT5e (Details IEC 61156) – Hybrid version with Power & Signal • Connectors IP20 – RJ45 from office application – Useful for industrial application (connectable to AWG22) – Can be assembled in the field • Connector IP65 (outside of cabinet) – Compatible to IP20 variant – Can be assembled in the field – Hybrid variant with Power & Signal – M12 plug connector (with 4 poles)
  20. 20. Fiber Optic Components Buffer Coating • Immunity to EMI/RFI and lightning damage • No ground loops • Low attenuation (data loss) • Longer distance - 2 km with Multimode fiber - >10 km with Single Mode Cladding Core fiber • Small and lightweight cable Core – Thin glass fiber where light travels • No shock hazard Cladding – Optical material surrounding the core that reflects light back into the core • Longer life expectancy than Buffer Coating – Outer coating that protects copper or coaxial cable the fiber from damage
  21. 21. Installation & Wiring - Fiber Optics (FO) • Transmission as defined in IEC 8802-3 (100 BASE-FX) • Conducting wires – Glass fiber optic ISO/IEC 60793, 60794 – Multi-mode fiber: max. 2 km Mono-mode fiber: max. 14 km • Connectors IP20 – Type SC-Duplex (Push/Pull Connector) – Type BFOC/2,5 (Bayonet Connector) – Can be assembled in the field • Connector IP65 (outside of cabinet) – Simplex connector – Can be assembled in the field – Hybrid variant with Power & Signal
  22. 22. Network Components • There are many types of Connectivity devices • They all help to manage traffic on a network • Some of theses devices are… – Hubs – Switches – Routers
  23. 23. Hubs • Allows a network to function as if it where connected by a single line • Receives and retransmits signals to all ports • Results in higher network load / not recommended in field level installations Hub
  24. 24. Switches • Associates each port with physical addresses connected through it • Sends frame out the port associated with the physical address • Improves the performance of the network • Two most common types… – Cut-through – Store and forward
  25. 25. Switch Operation Simultaneously Switch B to D A to C A D 55-E0-08-33-4E-39 B 14-45-08-7A-11-16 C 47-2C-36-64-00-00 91-09-83-5B-03-09
  26. 26. Learning MAC Addresses Node B MAC Switch Port 1 Node A Port 2 Port 4 Lookup table Port 3 Address Port Node A 1 Node B ? 2 ? ? 3 4 ! Node C . . Node B Node D
  27. 27. Which Switch to use for PROFINET? Used in Feature Description PROFINET? Managed vs. Both can be Managed switches offer advanced features Unmanaged used Quality of Prioritize frames according IEEE 802.1p/q recommended Service (QOS) Trunking Increase bandwidth Useful VLAN Isolates traffic of different network sections Useful Port Mirroring Helps to monitor traffic of a device Useful IGMP Snooping Reduces Broadcast traffic Not needed
  28. 28. Managed vs. Unmanaged • Managed switches are plug and play but also support SNMP and other advanced features such as Web access, Telnet, for improved diagnostics, commissioning and configuration (redundancy for example) Switch • Unmanaged switches are also plug and play and usually without many additional features. What you see is what you get! (WYSIWYG) Switch
  29. 29. Quality of Service (QOS) • IEEE 802.1p enables traffic priority (QOS) on layer 2 switches D Receiver B Sender Switch HIGH Priority Message! A Sender C Sender • Without QOS the switch will forward data in the order it receives… first in, first out (Standard Store and Forward) • With QOS the switch will forward based on a priority field in the Ethernet frame (highest priority frame is then sent first)
  30. 30. VLANs (Virtual LANs) Engineering VLAN Marketing VLAN Accounting VLAN Building 1 Switch Floor 2 Building 1 Switch Floor 1 Building 2 Switch Floor 1 • VLANs logically segment the network • VLANs improve the performance of the network because broadcast traffic is kept local
  31. 31. VLANs cont’ • Main Advantages of VLANs – Can divide the network into ‘switched’ separate broadcast domains for increased performance without the use of routers • (routers are more complex to manage and add more overhead since they operate at layer 3 of the OSI model) – Ease of configuration – Ease of device movement without changes to the device – Lower cost per port (routers are more expensive than switches)
  32. 32. Port Mirroring • Defining a mirror port duplicates all traffic on the mirror – in- and outgoing traffic • Useful for monitoring traffic on a certain port – e.g. with Ethereal • Available in managed switches or as dedicated device • Useful to trace network traffic for diagnostic reasons Mirror Port Switch Switch Monitor Port
  33. 33. Trunking (Link Aggregation) Port Trunking spreads traffic between switches on multiple connections Without trunking • One packet after the other will be sent Switch Switch With trunking • Doubles the bandwidth between 2 switches Switch Switch Trunking helps eliminate bottlenecks
  34. 34. Wireless Ethernet • Wireless Ethernet according to IEEE 802.11 • Features available for Industrial Wireless applications • Advantages – Cost savings through reduction in cabling and installation – No wear on rotating and moving devices (ex. Slip ring, drag chains) – Mobile diagnostics, monitoring, and operation – Moving machines, monorail systems
  35. 35. Wireless Ethernet (IEEE 802.11) IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.11g IEEE 802.11a Limited data rate with High data rate with 54 High data rate with 11Mbit/s Mbit/s 54Mbit/s 3 separate channels 3 separate channels 8 separate channels For indoor / outdoor For indoor / outdoor Only permitted indoor Transmission power Transmission Power Transmission Power 100mW 100mW 20mW Compatible with IEEE Not Compatible with 802.11b radio networks IEEE 802.11 b/g Approx Range 100m* Approx Range 100m* Approx Range 100m* No clients 8 Max No clients 8 No Clients 35 Frequency 2.4 GHz Frequency 2.4 GHz Frequency 5 GHz *Actual range may vary based upon environmental conditions
  36. 36. Which Wireless to use for PROFINET? Used in Feature Description PROFINET? Bandwidth Reserve a portion of the bandwidth for important IO Recommended in reservation Traffic IO applications Use multiple Antenna’s on the Wireless Access point Useful in difficult Antenna Diversity (2.4 & 5 Ghz) for better reception radio signal areas Reliable Wireless infrastructure by coupling multiple Useful for higher Redundancy Access points for a redundant link availability Wireless Link The access point continuously checks the status of Useful for Monitoring the wireless link for errors. diagnostics A rapid way of roaming between Wireless Cells when Rapid roaming Useful times in the range of 10 -> 100 ms are required Allows specific radio fields to be formed for controlled R-Coax Useful reception of Wireless LAN Cells
  37. 37. Routing • MAC address Application – Local address (LAN traffic) – based on hardware and Presentation manufacturer Session • IP address – can be used for WAN Transport traffic Routers Network – User defined • Routers are the bridge Data Link Switches between local networks Physical Hubs
  38. 38. Connecting Networks Router (Gateway) between the networks Network C Factory Network A Arizona Corp. Washington, DC Network B Factory Tennessee
  39. 39. Parts of the IP Address 0 IP Address 31 Net ID Host ID Subnet Mask 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 Net ID Subnet ID Host ID The Subnet Mask distinguishes the local network from the remote
  40. 40. Subnet Mask Example Class B: IP: / 24 bits SM: Net ID Host ID 142 .128 .32 .140 10001110 10000000 00100000 10001100 Subnet Mask 255 .255 Max 256 Subnets Max 256.0 .255 Host IDs 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000 Subnet ID: 32 Host ID: 140
  41. 41. PROFINET and Routing • Design your network carefully – To get the maximum performance real-time traffic should stay local (LAN) • No routers between field devices and controllers – Don’t send cyclic I/O data over routers – Pack data before sending over routers – Use TCP/IP based traffic for sending data over WAN (e.g. OPC, PROFINET CBA)
  42. 42. PROFINET Network Infrastructure Summary • Ethernet as defined in IEEE 802.3 • Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) • Fast Ethernet (100 MBit/s) as defined in 100 BASE-TX • Gigabit Ethernet for network backbone • Full Duplex operation • Support of all network topologies to fit the needs of the application • Auto-Cross-Over function – Exchange of conducting wires is repaired automatically by the Auto-Cross-Over function of the network components
  43. 43. Network Infrastructure Demo Engineering HMI Wireless Switch PROFINET Proxy Controller Proxy Proxy XX55 W CE Proxy Proxy I/O Serial DeviceNet PROFIBUS PROFIBUS Modbus 230.2 PROFIBUS Direct 06 226.2 I/O Controller PB Slave I/O I/O Conveyor Conveyor Conveyor Conveyor Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Photo Senso Senso Senso Senso Senso Senso Senso Senso r r r r r r r r