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  • This is a general overview presentation about Internet2. Internet2 is a consortium, led by US universities, which is recreating the partnership among academia, industry and government that fostered today’s Internet in its infancy.
  • Partnerships are the foundation of how the Internet developed and they are also a part of the foundation of Internet2.
  • Partnerships are the foundation of how the Internet developed and they are also a part of the foundation of Internet2.
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    1. 1. Deploying IPv6 Across the Internet2 Infrastructure Rick Summerhill Associate Director, Backbone Network Infrastructure, Internet2 North American IPv6 Global Summit San Diego, CA 24 June 2003
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>General Internet2 Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet2 Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilene Partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilene Backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IPv6 Deployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Internet2 Goals <ul><li>Create a leading edge network capability for the national research community </li></ul><ul><li>Enable revolutionary Internet applications </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the rapid transfer of new network services and applications to the broader Internet community. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Partners <ul><li>Internet2 </li></ul><ul><li>Cisco Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Indiana University </li></ul><ul><li>Juniper Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Nortel Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Qwest Communications </li></ul><ul><li>North Carolina, Ohio, San Diego ITECs </li></ul>
    5. 5. Abilene Backbone <ul><li>Abilene backbone – OC-192c over unprotected DWDM waves with SONET framing </li></ul><ul><li>In final stages of an upgrade to OC-192c </li></ul><ul><li>Often easier to deploy advanced services on a backbone network than at the edges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topology </li></ul>
    6. 6. Abilene Backbone (Late Summer 2003)
    7. 7. Abilene Backbone (Early Summer 2003)
    8. 8. Abilene scale (April 2003) <ul><li>48 direct connections (OC-3c  10-Gbps) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 10-Gbps connections (both 10-Gigabit Ethernet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 OC-48c </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Gigabit Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23 connections at OC-12c (622 Mbps) or higher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>221 participants – universities and labs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All 50 states, District of Columbia, & Puerto Rico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recently: Oak Ridge National Laboratory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanded access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85 sponsored participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28 state education networks </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Abilene Federal/Research Peering (Late Spring 2003) 09 January 2002 Last updated: 17 January 2003
    10. 10. Abilene International Peering (Late Spring 2003) 09 January 2002
    11. 11. Internet2 Infrastructure <ul><li>The Full Internet2 infrastructure is diverse and complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backbone is relatively simple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management provided by Indiana Global NOC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing by Internet2 Test and Evaluation Centers (ITECs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectors often exhibit a complicated hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some research institutions connected directly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some are connected through regional networks, state networks, and some have complex campus networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land Grant institutions often have county extension offices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity/Complexity increases as one gets closer to the edges of the network </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Influences the way IPv6 is implemented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the classic IPv6 addressing/routing plan, with potentially multiple connections, in this diverse infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Internet2 Infrastructure Simple to Complex Hierarchies within the Internet2 Infrastructures DNS and multi-homing issues within these types of hierarchies
    13. 13. Abilene Focus Areas - 2003 <ul><li>Advanced Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 and Multicast (and IPv6 Multicast) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the following include both IPv4 and IPv6 – the common bearer service for Abilene is both IPv4 and IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitating end-to-end performance </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting network research – Abilene Observatory </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenting with MPLS/VPN on backbone </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting large MTUs </li></ul><ul><li>Security and the REN-ISAC </li></ul>
    14. 14. Internet2 IPv6 Goals <ul><li>Support and encourage development of advanced applications using IPv6 </li></ul><ul><li>Create a national infrastructure to support IPv6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement IPv6 on Abilene Backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage deployment of IPv6 throughout the Internet2 infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support end-2-end transparency for IPv6 advanced applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important issue for high performance applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High performance applications often have trouble with NATs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a more robust infrastructure to provide security </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Educating the Internet2 IPv6 user base </li></ul><ul><li>Support interconnectivity and transit during the initial stages of IPv6 deployment </li></ul>
    15. 15. Abilene IPv6 History <ul><li>Substantial input from the Internet2 IPv6 working group </li></ul><ul><li>Initial Tunnel Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At the beginning stages, code was not available for backbone routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisco donated four 7200 routers for a tunnel deployment, originally located in gigapops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunnels across the IPv4 backbone, and to IPv4 connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigapops used tunneled connections to this “tunnel backbone”, and connected universities also using tunnels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing – BGP and RIP-NG (later ISIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively simple process – tunnel interfaces with v6 addresses </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Abilene IPv6 History
    17. 17. Abilene IPv6 History <ul><li>Transition to native dual stack backbone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found we couldn’t do high-bandwidth applications across the tunnel backbone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DVTS video application from Japan to DC stressed tunnel approach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major concern was the effect of IPv6 on IPv4 performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 configured on backbone routers – originally Cisco GSRs, now Juniper T-640s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunnel backbone and dual stack backbone connected together – Internal BGP and IS-IS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectors transitioned to native dual stack mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunnel backbone gradually replaced and reduced – now down to one router to support legacy tunnel connectors. Router is located at Indiana NOC. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Abilene IPv6 Backbone <ul><li>Currently a native IPv6 Dual Stack implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Fully deployed on all Abilene Routers </li></ul><ul><li>Routing is BGP and ISIS (for both IPv4 and IPv6) </li></ul><ul><li>Peering and connectivity does not fall under the Abilene CoU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there interest in Abilene IPv6 connectivity? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legacy tunnel connections still supported on single router at Indianapolis </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Tests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 Gbps across backbone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPv6 only and mixed IPv6/IPv4 </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Abilene IPv6 Backbone <ul><li>Addressing Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently have /32, originally was a /35 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate a /40 to a gigapop or a /48 to a university </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some gigapops have 12 member universities and had to allocate their /40 to those universities plus state networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities immediately felt constrained by this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recall that some universities have locations in potentially 200 counties within a state (i.e. Land Grant Institutions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>WiscREN and Pittsburgh gigapops have obtained their own space </li></ul><ul><li>Some universities attempting to obtain space – could satisfy current ARIN guidelines </li></ul>
    20. 20. Abilene IPv6 Backbone <ul><li>Current IPv6 Connectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front Range Gigapop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Plains Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indiana Gigapop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermountain Gigapop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAGPI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MREN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid-Atlantic Crossroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NYSERNet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Texas Gigapop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Crossroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OneNet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon Gigapop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pittsburgh Gigapop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SDSC/UCSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Memphis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiscREN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current IPv6 Peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASNet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CUDI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CA*net </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GEANT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HARnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEAnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricane Electric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kreonet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NORDUnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surfnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WIDE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DTF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vBNS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchange Points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6Tap (StarTap) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>StarLight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PacWave </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Abilene IPv6 Backbone <ul><li>Current Connectors/Peers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 native connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 native peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IPv6 Multicast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing at North Carolina ITEC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet2 consensus is that SSM is the appropriate direction for multicast under IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need layer 2 devices to do the correct thing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production type server for reverse lookups at NOC – points to gigapop servers for details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectors/members handle there own forward lookups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple implementations right now </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Abilene IPv6 Backbone <ul><li>Will provide an IPv6 Measurement Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to perform measurements using IPv4 and IPv6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for MIBs for basic measurements via SNMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of data collected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One way latency tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Throughput measurements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Netflow measurements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End-2-end performance testing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. IPv6 in Gigapops, Campus <ul><li>Implementing IPv6 in gigaPoPs is similar to implementing on backbone, although there are different approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are native connections now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tunnels persist back to the campus or even to individual departments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Campus implementations vary, but are gradually progressing, and are migrating deeper into the campus environments </li></ul><ul><li>Problems include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older equipment in locations where there is reluctance to upgrade because of a production environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS – often done on separate servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deploying other applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of deploying IPv6 servers in dual stack mode </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Naming issues </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Internet2 Support for IPv6 <ul><li>Tutorials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two day workshops, hands-on experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptions and planning guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://ipv6.internet2.edu/workshops/index.shtml </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate discussion/lecture with hands-on work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slides are available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://ipv6.internet2.edu/fiu/presentations/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very popular events </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Internet2 Support for IPv6 <ul><li>Topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation Schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Router Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-homing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-homing Lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provider Independent Addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provider Independent Addressing Lab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the Hood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stateless Autoconfiguration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighbor Solicitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition and Tunnels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unix Hosts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GigaPoP Implementations </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Internet2 IPv6 Deployment Issues <ul><li>Addressing and routing – multi-homing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilene currently has a /32, allocates /40 prefixes to large connectors, /48 prefixes to universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The classic model for IPv6 is PA addressing, to contain the size/stability of the global routing table – potentially very large if using PI addressing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall the complicated hierarchy within our infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the next 6 months, we expect member institutions to inherit multiple prefixes, potentially from 2 or more research networks and 2 or more commodity networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy requirements complicate the multi-homing problem </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Internet2 IPv6 Deployment Issues – The Multi-homing Problem
    28. 28. Internet2 IPv6 Deployment Issues – The Multi-homing Problem <ul><li>How should we deal with this problem? We have to make this work. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should we allow others to punch holes in the Internet2 prefix? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should we punch holes in the prefixes of other research networks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should we encourage all connectors to obtain their own space? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At some point in the hierarchy, this solution doesn’t work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How to deal with multiple addresses is very important to our deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Does the punching of holes in PA space make sense? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would it make more sense to allocate some PI space, make it work for now, allowing time for development of a solution to the multi-homing problem? Use some scheme, possibly one geographically based, to allow for a few years of development? </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Internet2 IPv6 Deployment Issues <ul><li>Routing databases – are these useful? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should we deploy an IPv6 RADB database? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental at first, production later? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Internet2 IPv6 Deployment Issues <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.internet2.edu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://abilene.internet2.edu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ipv6.internet2.edu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>