Network  Protocols
Objectives <ul><li>Identify characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS, and AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><li>Understand positi...
Introduction to Protocols <ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules network uses to transfer data </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
TCP/IP <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suite of small, specialized ...
TCP/IP Compared to the OSI Model <ul><li>Application layer roughly corresponds to Session, Application, and Presentation l...
The TCP/IP Core Protocols <ul><li>Certain subprotocols of TCP/IP suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in Transport or Netwo...
Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>Provides information about how and where data should be delivered </li></ul><ul><li>Subprot...
Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>IP datagram   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP portion of TCP/IP frame that acts as an envelope for...
Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>IP is an unreliable, connectionless protocol, which means it does not guarantee delivery of...
Transport Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>TCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides reliable data delivery services </li></ul></ul...
Transport Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>Port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address on host where application makes itself availab...
TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols <ul><li>Telnet  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to log on to remote hosts using TCP/IP proto...
Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>IP Address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical address used in TCP/IP networking </li></ul></ul><ul...
Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Though 8 bits have 256 possible combinations, only the numbers 1 through 254 are used to iden...
Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized device (typically a router) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Static IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address manually assigned to a device </li></ul></...
Viewing Current IP Information Figure 3-5: IP address information on a Windows 2000 workstation
IPX/SPX <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol originally...
IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates at Network layer of OSI M...
IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belongs to Transport layer of OSI Mod...
NetBIOS and NetBEUI <ul><li>Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally designed by IBM t...
NetBIOS and NetBEUI <ul><li>NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast and efficient protocol </li></ul></...
NetBIOS and NetBEUI Compared to the OSI Model Figure 3-9: NetBIOS/NetBEUI compared to the OSI Model
AppleTalk <ul><li>Protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Originally designed to support...
Installing Protocols <ul><li>After installing protocols, they must be binded to NICs and services they run on or with </li...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Protocols define standards for communication between nodes on a network </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>TCP/IP suite of protocols can be divided into four layers roughly corresponding to seven layers of...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Every host on a network must have a unique number </li></ul><ul><li>Internetworking Packet Exchang...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>Addresses on an IPX/SPX network are called IPX addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Network Basic Input Out...
Chapter Summary <ul><li>To transmit data between network nodes, NetBIOS needs to know how to reach each workstation </li><...
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Network Protocols Objectives Identify characteristics of TCP ...

  1. 1. Network Protocols
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS, and AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><li>Understand position of network protocols in OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Identify core protocols of each protocol suite and its functions </li></ul><ul><li>Understand each protocol’s addressing scheme </li></ul><ul><li>Install protocols on Windows 98 and Windows 2000 clients </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction to Protocols <ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules network uses to transfer data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols that can span more than one LAN segment are routable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiprotocol network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network using more than one protocol </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. TCP/IP <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suite of small, specialized protocols called subprotocols </li></ul></ul>OSI Model TCP/IP Figure 3-1: TCP/IP compared to the OSI Model
  5. 5. TCP/IP Compared to the OSI Model <ul><li>Application layer roughly corresponds to Session, Application, and Presentation layers of OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Transport layer roughly corresponds to Transport layers of OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Internet layer is equivalent to Network layer of OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Network Interface layer roughly corresponds to Data Link and Physical layers of OSI Model </li></ul>
  6. 6. The TCP/IP Core Protocols <ul><li>Certain subprotocols of TCP/IP suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in Transport or Network layers of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide basic services to protocols in other layers of TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP and IP are most significant core protocols in TCP/IP suite </li></ul>
  7. 7. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>Provides information about how and where data should be delivered </li></ul><ul><li>Subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To internetwork is to traverse more than one LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In an internetwork, the individual networks that are joined together are called subnetworks </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>IP datagram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP portion of TCP/IP frame that acts as an envelope for data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains information necessary for routers to transfer data between subnets </li></ul></ul>Figure 3-2: Components of an IP datagram
  9. 9. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>IP is an unreliable, connectionless protocol, which means it does not guarantee delivery of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectionless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows protocol to service a request without requesting verified session and without guaranteeing delivery of data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Transport Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>TCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides reliable data delivery services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection-oriented subprotocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires establishment of connection between communicating nodes before protocol will transmit data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP segment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds TCP data fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes encapsulated by IP datagram </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Transport Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>Port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address on host where application makes itself available to incoming data </li></ul></ul>Figure 3-3: A TCP segment
  12. 12. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols <ul><li>Telnet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to log on to remote hosts using TCP/IP protocol suite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to send and receive files via TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another, using the Internet and other TCP/IP-based networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages devices on a TCP/IP network </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>IP Address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical address used in TCP/IP networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique 32-bit number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into four groups of octets (8-bit bytes) that are separated by periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP addresses are assigned and used according to very specific parameters </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Though 8 bits have 256 possible combinations, only the numbers 1 through 254 are used to identify networks and hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers 0 and 255 are reserved for broadcasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadcast are transmissions to all stations on a network </li></ul></ul>Table 3-1: Commonly used TCP/IP classes
  15. 15. Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Firewall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized device (typically a router) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selectively filters or blocks traffic between networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be strictly hardware-based or may involve a combination of hardware and software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer connected to a network using the TCP/IP protocol </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Static IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address manually assigned to a device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application layer protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages dynamic distribution of IP addresses on a network </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Viewing Current IP Information Figure 3-5: IP address information on a Windows 2000 workstation
  18. 18. IPX/SPX <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol originally developed by Xerox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980s for the NetWare network operating system </li></ul></ul>Figure 3-6: IPX/SPX compared to the OSI Model
  19. 19. IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates at Network layer of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides routing and internetworking services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to IP in TCP/IP suite </li></ul></ul>Figure 3-7: Components of an IPX datagram
  20. 20. IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belongs to Transport layer of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works in tandem with IPX to ensure data are received: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error free </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. NetBIOS and NetBEUI <ul><li>Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally designed by IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted by Microsoft as its foundation protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft added Application layer component called NetBEUI </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. NetBIOS and NetBEUI <ul><li>NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast and efficient protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes few network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides excellent error correction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires little configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can handle only 254 connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not allow for good security </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. NetBIOS and NetBEUI Compared to the OSI Model Figure 3-9: NetBIOS/NetBEUI compared to the OSI Model
  24. 24. AppleTalk <ul><li>Protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Originally designed to support peer-to-peer networking among Macintoshes </li></ul><ul><li>Can now be routed between network segments and integrated with NetWare- and Microsoft-based networks </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk networks are separated into logical groups of computers called AppleTalk zones </li></ul>
  25. 25. Installing Protocols <ul><li>After installing protocols, they must be binded to NICs and services they run on or with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Process of assigning one network component to work with another </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Protocols define standards for communication between nodes on a network </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols vary in speed, transmission efficiency, utilization of resources, ease of setup, compatibility, and ability to travel between one LAN segments </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP is becoming most popular network protocol </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chapter Summary <ul><li>TCP/IP suite of protocols can be divided into four layers roughly corresponding to seven layers of OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Operating in Transport or Network layers of OSI Model, TCP/IP core protocols provide communications between hosts on a network </li></ul><ul><li>Each IP address is a unique 32-bit number, divided into four groups of octets separated by periods </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Every host on a network must have a unique number </li></ul><ul><li>Internetworking Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) is a protocol originally developed by Xerox then modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980s for its NetWare network operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Core protocols of IPX/SPX provide services at Transport and Network layers of OSI Model </li></ul>
  29. 29. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Addresses on an IPX/SPX network are called IPX addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) was originally developed by IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft adopted NetBIOS as its foundation protocol, then added an Application layer component called NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Chapter Summary <ul><li>To transmit data between network nodes, NetBIOS needs to know how to reach each workstation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each workstation must have a NetBIOS name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk is the the protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>An AppleTalk network is separated into logical groups of computers called AppleTalk zones </li></ul>

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