Grids and the Harmony and Prosperity of Civilizations  “ Beijing Forum” (2004)  The Harmony and Prosperity of Civilization...
CPU and Network Infrastructure <ul><li>Moore’s law  predicts that electronic components will improve in performance by a f...
Global Enterprises <ul><li>As communication improves,  activities are spread more and more across the globe. </li></ul><ul...
e-Infrastructure <ul><li>e-Infrastructure  builds on the inevitable increasing performance of networks and computers linki...
On Complex Systems Language <ul><li>Web and  Grid resources  (people, pages, databases, computers) are “ just spins ” </li...
4 × N Interactions <ul><li>In days gone by  people communicated with their local community </li></ul><ul><li>Nearest neigh...
N plus N Interactions <ul><li>Television and the Web  allows individuals to communicate instantly with each other via Web ...
M 2   Interactions <ul><li>Superimpose M way “Grids” on the sea (heatbath) of “2 by N” or N plus N  ordinary  interactions...
Information Grid Enterprise Grid Compute Grid Campus Grid Teacher Students Dynamic light-weight Peer-to-peer Collaboration...
Large and Small Grids <ul><li>N resources in a community (N is billions for the world and 1000-10000 for many scientific f...
Architecture of (Web Service) Grids <ul><li>We view the  “ordinary” Internet  as providing support for the huge number of ...
Bit level Internet (OSI  Stack) Layered Architecture for Web Services and Grids Base Hosting Environment Protocol HTTP FTP...
Working up from the Bottom <ul><li>We have the classic (CISCO, Juniper ….) Internet routing the flood of ordinary packets ...
Service Context <ul><li>On top of “Service Internet”, one supports dynamic  context  or the “ shared memory ” supporting g...
Alternative definitions of a Grid <ul><li>Supporting human decision making with a network of at least  four large  compute...
e-Business e-Science and the Grid <ul><li>e-Business  captures an emerging view of corporations as dynamic  virtual organi...
e-Defense and e-Crisis  <ul><li>Grids support  Command and Control  and provide  Global Situational Awareness   </li></ul>...
e-Business and (Virtual) Organizations <ul><li>Enterprise Grid   supports information system for an organization; includes...
Information/Knowledge Grids <ul><li>Distributed  (10’s to 1000’s) of  data sources  (instruments, file systems, curated da...
Virtual Observatory Astronomy  N plus N Grid that Integrates Experiments Radio Far-Infrared Visible Visible + X-ray Dust M...
CERN LHC Data Analysis Grid <ul><li>Typical experiment at LHC has  2000  physicists  </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing data from...
DAME Rolls Royce and UK e-Science Program Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment Several small M 2  Grids – one for ...
Information Complexity I <ul><li>Consider a community of N resources with  groups of size M  with each group  complexity C...
Information Complexity II <ul><li>N plus N Community  database has I =  N Coherent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving on  N 0...
Grids and e-globalcommunity <ul><li>Peer-to-peer networks  already are a good example of value of Information Technology s...
Outsourcing or Not? <ul><li>In the USA, over last 30 years people worried about  loss of manufacturing jobs  from the  fir...
Streaming M 2  Grids <ul><li>e-Textilemanufacturing  involves Clothes designers in USA and manufacturers in Hong Kong   ex...
Some Technology for Streaming M 2  Grids <ul><li>Basic capability is  collaborative annotatable multimedia tool  for image...
P2P and Server based solutions <ul><li>Peer-to-peer  architectures have advantage that they can be  deployed just using cl...
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Network Infrastructure

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Network Infrastructure

  1. 1. Grids and the Harmony and Prosperity of Civilizations “ Beijing Forum” (2004) The Harmony and Prosperity of Civilizations http://www.beijingforum.org/english/index.htm Geoffrey Fox Professor of Computer Science, Informatics, Physics Pervasive Technology Laboratories Indiana University Bloomington IN 47401 [email_address] http:// www.infomall.org
  2. 2. CPU and Network Infrastructure <ul><li>Moore’s law predicts that electronic components will improve in performance by a factor of 100 or so every ten years (double every 18 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Networks are increasing in performance every year much faster than this as more and better technology is deployed (Gilder’s law) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last-mile versus backbone performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency versus bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable, DSL, Satellite, Optical fiber, wireless are competing to provide high speed connectivity to the citizens of the world </li></ul><ul><li>By 2006, GTRN (Global Terabit Research Network) aims at a 1000:1000:100:10:1 gigabit performance ratio representing international backbone: national: organization: optical desktop: Copper desktop links. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Global Enterprises <ul><li>As communication improves, activities are spread more and more across the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>Faster physical transportation (cars, trains, aircraft) enabled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing international tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of manufacturing, design and sales of vehicles, consumer electronics, clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal networking is allowing instant global information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The latest event at the Olympic Games or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The latest terrorist event </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e-Infrastructure is allowing more and more sophisticated activities to become distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific research, Business and for this meeting Civilization </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. e-Infrastructure <ul><li>e-Infrastructure builds on the inevitable increasing performance of networks and computers linking them together to support new flexible linkages between computers, data systems and people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grids and peer-to-peer networks are the technologies that build e-Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Infrastructure called CyberInfrastructure in USA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We imagine billions of conventional local or global connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones, web page accesses, plane trips, hallway conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On this we superimpose high value multi-way linkages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as collection of people at this meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If N items are joined to M others, added value goes like N × M for small M but in broadcast limit M ≈ N, the value decreases to a constant × N. (A Complex System theorem ) </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Internet technology manages billions of broadcast or low (2-way) or broadcast links </li></ul><ul><li>Grids superimpose multiple M-way overlaid organizations with optimized resources and system support </li></ul>
  5. 5. On Complex Systems Language <ul><li>Web and Grid resources (people, pages, databases, computers) are “ just spins ” </li></ul><ul><li>Local Interactions are terms in an energy function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E = sum( nearest neighbor i,j) weight(i,j).s(i).s(j) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Internet Communication” corresponds to a long range force with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E= sum(all spins i) H . s(i) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And behaves like a magnetic field aligning spins in physics (complex systems) analogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning is harmonizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximizing Prosperity is minimizing “Complex Systems Energy” </li></ul><ul><li>Abrupt Social changes are phase transitions </li></ul><ul><li>In this language, Grids provide different local energy functions ( enhanced interaction ) and harmonizing forces through community shared resources </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4 × N Interactions <ul><li>In days gone by people communicated with their local community </li></ul><ul><li>Nearest neighbour communications in a physics analogy with communication = force </li></ul>
  7. 7. N plus N Interactions <ul><li>Television and the Web allows individuals to communicate instantly with each other via Web Pages and Headline News acting as proxies </li></ul><ul><li>N resources deposit information and N can view  Call N plus N </li></ul>
  8. 8. M 2 Interactions <ul><li>Superimpose M way “Grids” on the sea (heatbath) of “2 by N” or N plus N ordinary interactions </li></ul>Implement Grids as a software overlay network
  9. 9. Information Grid Enterprise Grid Compute Grid Campus Grid Teacher Students Dynamic light-weight Peer-to-peer Collaboration Training Grid 4 Overlay Networks With a 5 th superimposed R2 R1
  10. 10. Large and Small Grids <ul><li>N resources in a community (N is billions for the world and 1000-10000 for many scientific fields) </li></ul><ul><li>Communities are arranged hierarchically with real work being done in “groups” of M resources – M could be 10-100 in e-Science </li></ul><ul><li>Metcalfe’s law : value of network grows like square of number of nodes M – we call Grids where this true Metcalfe or M 2 Grids </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Interaction depends on size of M or N </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N plus N Shared Information Grids for large N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M 2 Metcalfe Grids for smaller M </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology support depends on M – might use a relatively static DHT (Distributed Hash Table) for large M and a distributed shared memory for small M </li></ul><ul><li>Grids must merge with peer-to-peer networks to support both N plus N and M 2 Grids </li></ul>
  11. 11. Architecture of (Web Service) Grids <ul><li>We view the “ordinary” Internet as providing support for the huge number of low-complexity interactions which are the dominant traffic </li></ul><ul><li>We superimpose multiple Grids on top of these; each Grid supports a high value high complexity interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grids built from Web Services communicating through an overlay network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grids provide the special quality of service (security, performance, fault-tolerance) and customized services needed for “distributed complex enterprises” </li></ul><ul><li>We need to work with Web Service community as they debate the 60 or so proposed Web Service specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Web Service Interoperability WS-I as “best practice” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must add further specifications to support high performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database “Grid Services” for N plus N case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming support for M 2 case </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bit level Internet (OSI Stack) Layered Architecture for Web Services and Grids Base Hosting Environment Protocol HTTP FTP DNS … Presentation XDR … Session SSH … Transport TCP UDP … Network IP … Data Link / Physical Service Internet Application Specific Grids Generally Useful Services and Grids Workflow WSFL/BPEL Service Management (“Context etc.”) Service Discovery (UDDI) / Information Service Internet Transport  Protocol Service Interfaces WSDL Service Context Higher Level Services
  13. 13. Working up from the Bottom <ul><li>We have the classic (CISCO, Juniper ….) Internet routing the flood of ordinary packets in OSI stack architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Web Services build the “ Service Internet ” or IOI (Internet on Internet) with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing via WS-Addressing not IP header </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault Tolerance (WS-RM not TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (WS-Security/SecureConversation not IPSec/SSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Services (UDDI/WS-Context not DNS/Configuration files) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At message/web service level and not packet/IP address level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software-based Service Internet possible as computers “fast” </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar from Peer-to-peer networks and built as a software overlay network defining Grid (analogy is VPN) </li></ul><ul><li>SOAP Header contains all information needed for the “Service Internet” ( Grid Operating System ) with SOAP Body containing information for Grid application service </li></ul>
  14. 14. Service Context <ul><li>On top of “Service Internet”, one supports dynamic context or the “ shared memory ” supporting groups (M from 2 to more) of services that are inevitable for Grids </li></ul><ul><li>Context information defines “ state ” (a token linking messages and services together), policy/implementation for security, fault tolerance, lifetime etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes generalization of “ environment ” and “ configuration ” variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This context can be implemented as a Service itself – using SOAP message interactions with a database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a lightweight highly dynamic database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interesting debate between shared (a single service) memory or distributed memory (Collection of messages with context in header) architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiar from parallel computing with “distributed shared memory” a natural solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note this can only be done dynamically if Grids are small –full Internet case needs larger but less dynamic context support </li></ul>
  15. 15. Alternative definitions of a Grid <ul><li>Supporting human decision making with a network of at least four large computers, perhaps six or eight small computers, and a great assortment of disc files and magnetic tape units - not to mention remote consoles and teletype stations - all churning away. (Licklider 1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic multi-institutional virtual organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure that will provide us with the ability to dynamically link together resources as an ensemble to support the execution of large-scale , resource-intensive , and distributed applications . </li></ul><ul><li>Realizing thirty year dream of science fiction writers that have spun yarns featuring worldwide networks of interconnected computers that behave as a single entity. </li></ul>
  16. 16. e-Business e-Science and the Grid <ul><li>e-Business captures an emerging view of corporations as dynamic virtual organizations linking employees, customers and stakeholders across the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growing use of outsourcing is one example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e-Science is the similar vision for scientific research with international participation in large accelerators, satellites or distributed gene analyses. </li></ul><ul><li>The Grid integrates the best of the Web, traditional enterprise software, high performance computing and Peer-to-peer systems to provide the information technology infrastructure for e-moreorlessanything . </li></ul><ul><li>A deluge of data of unprecedented and inevitable size must be managed and understood. </li></ul><ul><li>People , computers , data and instruments must be linked. </li></ul><ul><li>On demand assignment of experts, computers, networks and storage resources must be supported </li></ul>
  17. 17. e-Defense and e-Crisis <ul><li>Grids support Command and Control and provide Global Situational Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link commanders and frontline troops to themselves and to archival and real-time data; link to what-if simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic heterogeneous wired and wireless networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and fault tolerance essential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System of Systems; Grid of Grids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The command and information infrastructure of each ship is a Grid; each fleet is linked together by a Grid; the President is informed by and informs the national defense Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grids must be heterogeneous and federated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crisis Management and Response enabled by a Grid linking sensors, disaster managers, and first responders with decision support </li></ul>
  18. 18. e-Business and (Virtual) Organizations <ul><li>Enterprise Grid supports information system for an organization; includes “university computer center”, “(digital) library”, sales, marketing, manufacturing … </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing Grid links different parts of an enterprise together (Gridsourcing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing plants with designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animators with electronic game or film designers and producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaches with aspiring players ( e-NCAA or e-NFL etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Grid links businesses and their customers as in many web sites such as amazon.com </li></ul><ul><li>e-Multimedia can use secure peer-to-peer Grids to link creators, distributors and consumers of digital music, games and films respecting rights </li></ul><ul><li>Distance education Grid links teacher at one place, students all over the place, mentors and graders; shared curriculum, homework, live classes … </li></ul>
  19. 19. Information/Knowledge Grids <ul><li>Distributed (10’s to 1000’s) of data sources (instruments, file systems, curated databases …) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Deluge : 1 (now) to 100’s petabyte s/year (2012) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moore’s law for Sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible filters assigned dynamically ( on-demand ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run image processing algorithm on telescope image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Gene sequencing algorithm on compiled data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good example of N plus N Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata ( provenance ) critical to annotate data </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate across experiments as in multi-wavelength astronomy </li></ul>Data Deluge comes from pixels/year available
  20. 20. Virtual Observatory Astronomy N plus N Grid that Integrates Experiments Radio Far-Infrared Visible Visible + X-ray Dust Map Galaxy Density Map
  21. 21. CERN LHC Data Analysis Grid <ul><li>Typical experiment at LHC has 2000 physicists </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing data from LHC is a “ N plus N Grid ” with huge scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 CPU’s processing simultaneously LHC data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a few years, over a 100 of Petabytes of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physics discovery is a M 2 Grid with perhaps M=10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of such groups working simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note hierarchical structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M=10 in Physics analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M=2,000 in one LHC Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M=10,000 physicists in particle physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M= 100,000 total physicists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M=? Scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M= Billions People </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. DAME Rolls Royce and UK e-Science Program Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment Several small M 2 Grids – one for each aircraft back-ended by N plus N Grid of reference data of all engines In flight data Airline Maintenance Centre Ground Station Global Network Such as SITA Internet, e-mail, pager Engine Health (Data) Center ~ Gigabyte per aircraft per Engine per transatlantic flight ~5000 engines
  23. 23. Information Complexity I <ul><li>Consider a community of N resources with groups of size M with each group complexity C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N/M Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information in systems varies from coherent (harmonious) to incoherent limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web and Grid data resources supply coherence as in curated astronomy or bioinformatics database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can consider N plus N Grids as Coherent or Harmonious Grids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I = (NM) 0.5 . (C/M) Incoherent to N . (C/M) Coherent </li></ul><ul><li>In this language Grids do one or both of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence/Harmony – common shared asynchronous resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity – Increase complexity to M 2 with real-time linkage of interacting resources </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Information Complexity II <ul><li>N plus N Community database has I = N Coherent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving on N 0.5 incoherent case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearest Neighbor groups is I = (NM) 0.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming I = N in limit M = N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M is correlation length in Complex Systems approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M-ary Interactive group (M 2 Metcalfe Grids) has C = M 2 and I = (NM 3 ) 0.5 Incoherent to I = NM Coherent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherent case most natural in science due to synergy between Metcalfe and Coherence Grids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Small World (logarithmic) networks” and hierarchical group structure require more discussion </li></ul>
  25. 25. Grids and e-globalcommunity <ul><li>Peer-to-peer networks already are a good example of value of Information Technology supporting broad global communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing, text chats, bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grids must include these capabilities and extend in terms of increased functionality and quality of service </li></ul><ul><li>This will support business and cultural interactions between nations </li></ul><ul><li>Several interesting applications can be supported by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing files by multi-media streams so can collaborate in real-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding traditional tools like audio-video conferencing and shared applications to P2P set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This integration of P2P and Grid to give M 2 Grids impacts e-Business as well as e-globalcommunity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Outsourcing or Not? <ul><li>In the USA, over last 30 years people worried about loss of manufacturing jobs from the first wave of enterprise distribution created by “ physical communication ” </li></ul><ul><li>Now they worry about the next wave of outsourcing seen in areas like software, and movie/game animation created by e-Infrastructure – electronic communication </li></ul><ul><li>Probably this globalization of enterprises will increase not decrease as it allows one to tap the cheapest and best expertise for a particular task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further the core software and electronic infrastructure will continue dramatic improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuming global enterprises are inevitable each community should identify its expertise and enhance its ability to work in a distributed fashion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests increasing specialization within communities </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Streaming M 2 Grids <ul><li>e-Textilemanufacturing involves Clothes designers in USA and manufacturers in Hong Kong exchanging designs which are streams of images </li></ul><ul><li>e-Sports is a possible collaboration between Indiana University and Beijing Sport University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basket ball coaches (teacher) interact with aspiring NBA players in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martial Arts masters in China train neophytes in Indiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty recreational sports adviser works from university with faculty exercising at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope to have working incredibly well by the 2008 Olympics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive TV Grid : allows anybody to discuss professional or home video (of sports or other events) within a custom Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-player distributed games which should be supported with exactly the same overlay Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Video Game Production Grid links artistic direction (design) in one country with digital animation (manufacturing) in another </li></ul><ul><li>e-Science: Physics and Environmental Science Sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance Grid enables security personnel to annotate and discuss suspicious remote camera images/streams </li></ul>
  28. 28. Some Technology for Streaming M 2 Grids <ul><li>Basic capability is collaborative annotatable multimedia tool for images, sensors and real-time video streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow Grid participants to view real-time streams, rewind on the fly and add text and graphical comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to instant replay on TV but far more flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need rich metadata system to label and correlate streams, images and annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Extend Grid and P2P file access paradigms to stream storage, browsing and access </li></ul><ul><li>Core Technologies shared with distance education </li></ul><ul><li>Using http:// www.globalmmcs.org for multimedia services and http:// www.naradabrokering.org for overlay network </li></ul>
  29. 29. P2P and Server based solutions <ul><li>Peer-to-peer architectures have advantage that they can be deployed just using client resources and no system commitment is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Typically clients do not have good network QoS and it is hard for example to support rich multi-point audio video conferencing in this way </li></ul><ul><li>M 2 Grids typically require multicast so average load in P2P case on client legs goes like O(M) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server-side multicast puts O(M) load on backbone and O(1) load on clients and can lead to much better scaling and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N plus N Grids may not see such large improvements with server side support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So Grids should support initial P2P deployment with a seamless upgrade to add better QoS using Servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Extend familiar P2P paradigms like BitTorrent to Grids and Streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Grid and peer-to-peer linkage combines scalable performance with ease of deployment </li></ul>P2P Grid Farm in the Sky (clouds) Grid Servers

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