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Network Infrastructure


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Network Infrastructure

  1. 1. Grids and the Harmony and Prosperity of Civilizations “ Beijing Forum” (2004) The Harmony and Prosperity of Civilizations Geoffrey Fox Professor of Computer Science, Informatics, Physics Pervasive Technology Laboratories Indiana University Bloomington IN 47401 [email_address] http://
  2. 2. CPU and Network Infrastructure <ul><li>Moore’s law predicts that electronic components will improve in performance by a factor of 100 or so every ten years (double every 18 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Networks are increasing in performance every year much faster than this as more and better technology is deployed (Gilder’s law) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last-mile versus backbone performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency versus bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable, DSL, Satellite, Optical fiber, wireless are competing to provide high speed connectivity to the citizens of the world </li></ul><ul><li>By 2006, GTRN (Global Terabit Research Network) aims at a 1000:1000:100:10:1 gigabit performance ratio representing international backbone: national: organization: optical desktop: Copper desktop links. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Global Enterprises <ul><li>As communication improves, activities are spread more and more across the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>Faster physical transportation (cars, trains, aircraft) enabled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing international tourism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation of manufacturing, design and sales of vehicles, consumer electronics, clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Universal networking is allowing instant global information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The latest event at the Olympic Games or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The latest terrorist event </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e-Infrastructure is allowing more and more sophisticated activities to become distributed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific research, Business and for this meeting Civilization </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. e-Infrastructure <ul><li>e-Infrastructure builds on the inevitable increasing performance of networks and computers linking them together to support new flexible linkages between computers, data systems and people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grids and peer-to-peer networks are the technologies that build e-Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Infrastructure called CyberInfrastructure in USA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We imagine billions of conventional local or global connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phones, web page accesses, plane trips, hallway conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On this we superimpose high value multi-way linkages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as collection of people at this meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If N items are joined to M others, added value goes like N × M for small M but in broadcast limit M ≈ N, the value decreases to a constant × N. (A Complex System theorem ) </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional Internet technology manages billions of broadcast or low (2-way) or broadcast links </li></ul><ul><li>Grids superimpose multiple M-way overlaid organizations with optimized resources and system support </li></ul>
  5. 5. On Complex Systems Language <ul><li>Web and Grid resources (people, pages, databases, computers) are “ just spins ” </li></ul><ul><li>Local Interactions are terms in an energy function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E = sum( nearest neighbor i,j) weight(i,j).s(i).s(j) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Internet Communication” corresponds to a long range force with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E= sum(all spins i) H . s(i) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And behaves like a magnetic field aligning spins in physics (complex systems) analogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning is harmonizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximizing Prosperity is minimizing “Complex Systems Energy” </li></ul><ul><li>Abrupt Social changes are phase transitions </li></ul><ul><li>In this language, Grids provide different local energy functions ( enhanced interaction ) and harmonizing forces through community shared resources </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4 × N Interactions <ul><li>In days gone by people communicated with their local community </li></ul><ul><li>Nearest neighbour communications in a physics analogy with communication = force </li></ul>
  7. 7. N plus N Interactions <ul><li>Television and the Web allows individuals to communicate instantly with each other via Web Pages and Headline News acting as proxies </li></ul><ul><li>N resources deposit information and N can view  Call N plus N </li></ul>
  8. 8. M 2 Interactions <ul><li>Superimpose M way “Grids” on the sea (heatbath) of “2 by N” or N plus N ordinary interactions </li></ul>Implement Grids as a software overlay network
  9. 9. Information Grid Enterprise Grid Compute Grid Campus Grid Teacher Students Dynamic light-weight Peer-to-peer Collaboration Training Grid 4 Overlay Networks With a 5 th superimposed R2 R1
  10. 10. Large and Small Grids <ul><li>N resources in a community (N is billions for the world and 1000-10000 for many scientific fields) </li></ul><ul><li>Communities are arranged hierarchically with real work being done in “groups” of M resources – M could be 10-100 in e-Science </li></ul><ul><li>Metcalfe’s law : value of network grows like square of number of nodes M – we call Grids where this true Metcalfe or M 2 Grids </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of Interaction depends on size of M or N </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N plus N Shared Information Grids for large N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M 2 Metcalfe Grids for smaller M </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology support depends on M – might use a relatively static DHT (Distributed Hash Table) for large M and a distributed shared memory for small M </li></ul><ul><li>Grids must merge with peer-to-peer networks to support both N plus N and M 2 Grids </li></ul>
  11. 11. Architecture of (Web Service) Grids <ul><li>We view the “ordinary” Internet as providing support for the huge number of low-complexity interactions which are the dominant traffic </li></ul><ul><li>We superimpose multiple Grids on top of these; each Grid supports a high value high complexity interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grids built from Web Services communicating through an overlay network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grids provide the special quality of service (security, performance, fault-tolerance) and customized services needed for “distributed complex enterprises” </li></ul><ul><li>We need to work with Web Service community as they debate the 60 or so proposed Web Service specifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Web Service Interoperability WS-I as “best practice” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must add further specifications to support high performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database “Grid Services” for N plus N case </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming support for M 2 case </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bit level Internet (OSI Stack) Layered Architecture for Web Services and Grids Base Hosting Environment Protocol HTTP FTP DNS … Presentation XDR … Session SSH … Transport TCP UDP … Network IP … Data Link / Physical Service Internet Application Specific Grids Generally Useful Services and Grids Workflow WSFL/BPEL Service Management (“Context etc.”) Service Discovery (UDDI) / Information Service Internet Transport  Protocol Service Interfaces WSDL Service Context Higher Level Services
  13. 13. Working up from the Bottom <ul><li>We have the classic (CISCO, Juniper ….) Internet routing the flood of ordinary packets in OSI stack architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Web Services build the “ Service Internet ” or IOI (Internet on Internet) with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing via WS-Addressing not IP header </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault Tolerance (WS-RM not TCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (WS-Security/SecureConversation not IPSec/SSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Services (UDDI/WS-Context not DNS/Configuration files) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At message/web service level and not packet/IP address level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Software-based Service Internet possible as computers “fast” </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar from Peer-to-peer networks and built as a software overlay network defining Grid (analogy is VPN) </li></ul><ul><li>SOAP Header contains all information needed for the “Service Internet” ( Grid Operating System ) with SOAP Body containing information for Grid application service </li></ul>
  14. 14. Service Context <ul><li>On top of “Service Internet”, one supports dynamic context or the “ shared memory ” supporting groups (M from 2 to more) of services that are inevitable for Grids </li></ul><ul><li>Context information defines “ state ” (a token linking messages and services together), policy/implementation for security, fault tolerance, lifetime etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes generalization of “ environment ” and “ configuration ” variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This context can be implemented as a Service itself – using SOAP message interactions with a database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a lightweight highly dynamic database </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interesting debate between shared (a single service) memory or distributed memory (Collection of messages with context in header) architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiar from parallel computing with “distributed shared memory” a natural solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note this can only be done dynamically if Grids are small –full Internet case needs larger but less dynamic context support </li></ul>
  15. 15. Alternative definitions of a Grid <ul><li>Supporting human decision making with a network of at least four large computers, perhaps six or eight small computers, and a great assortment of disc files and magnetic tape units - not to mention remote consoles and teletype stations - all churning away. (Licklider 1960) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic multi-institutional virtual organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure that will provide us with the ability to dynamically link together resources as an ensemble to support the execution of large-scale , resource-intensive , and distributed applications . </li></ul><ul><li>Realizing thirty year dream of science fiction writers that have spun yarns featuring worldwide networks of interconnected computers that behave as a single entity. </li></ul>
  16. 16. e-Business e-Science and the Grid <ul><li>e-Business captures an emerging view of corporations as dynamic virtual organizations linking employees, customers and stakeholders across the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growing use of outsourcing is one example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e-Science is the similar vision for scientific research with international participation in large accelerators, satellites or distributed gene analyses. </li></ul><ul><li>The Grid integrates the best of the Web, traditional enterprise software, high performance computing and Peer-to-peer systems to provide the information technology infrastructure for e-moreorlessanything . </li></ul><ul><li>A deluge of data of unprecedented and inevitable size must be managed and understood. </li></ul><ul><li>People , computers , data and instruments must be linked. </li></ul><ul><li>On demand assignment of experts, computers, networks and storage resources must be supported </li></ul>
  17. 17. e-Defense and e-Crisis <ul><li>Grids support Command and Control and provide Global Situational Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link commanders and frontline troops to themselves and to archival and real-time data; link to what-if simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic heterogeneous wired and wireless networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security and fault tolerance essential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System of Systems; Grid of Grids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The command and information infrastructure of each ship is a Grid; each fleet is linked together by a Grid; the President is informed by and informs the national defense Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grids must be heterogeneous and federated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crisis Management and Response enabled by a Grid linking sensors, disaster managers, and first responders with decision support </li></ul>
  18. 18. e-Business and (Virtual) Organizations <ul><li>Enterprise Grid supports information system for an organization; includes “university computer center”, “(digital) library”, sales, marketing, manufacturing … </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing Grid links different parts of an enterprise together (Gridsourcing) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing plants with designers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animators with electronic game or film designers and producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaches with aspiring players ( e-NCAA or e-NFL etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Grid links businesses and their customers as in many web sites such as </li></ul><ul><li>e-Multimedia can use secure peer-to-peer Grids to link creators, distributors and consumers of digital music, games and films respecting rights </li></ul><ul><li>Distance education Grid links teacher at one place, students all over the place, mentors and graders; shared curriculum, homework, live classes … </li></ul>
  19. 19. Information/Knowledge Grids <ul><li>Distributed (10’s to 1000’s) of data sources (instruments, file systems, curated databases …) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Deluge : 1 (now) to 100’s petabyte s/year (2012) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moore’s law for Sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible filters assigned dynamically ( on-demand ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run image processing algorithm on telescope image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run Gene sequencing algorithm on compiled data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good example of N plus N Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata ( provenance ) critical to annotate data </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate across experiments as in multi-wavelength astronomy </li></ul>Data Deluge comes from pixels/year available
  20. 20. Virtual Observatory Astronomy N plus N Grid that Integrates Experiments Radio Far-Infrared Visible Visible + X-ray Dust Map Galaxy Density Map
  21. 21. CERN LHC Data Analysis Grid <ul><li>Typical experiment at LHC has 2000 physicists </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing data from LHC is a “ N plus N Grid ” with huge scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 CPU’s processing simultaneously LHC data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a few years, over a 100 of Petabytes of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physics discovery is a M 2 Grid with perhaps M=10 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of such groups working simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note hierarchical structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M=10 in Physics analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M=2,000 in one LHC Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M=10,000 physicists in particle physics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M= 100,000 total physicists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M=? Scientists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M= Billions People </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. DAME Rolls Royce and UK e-Science Program Distributed Aircraft Maintenance Environment Several small M 2 Grids – one for each aircraft back-ended by N plus N Grid of reference data of all engines In flight data Airline Maintenance Centre Ground Station Global Network Such as SITA Internet, e-mail, pager Engine Health (Data) Center ~ Gigabyte per aircraft per Engine per transatlantic flight ~5000 engines
  23. 23. Information Complexity I <ul><li>Consider a community of N resources with groups of size M with each group complexity C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N/M Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information in systems varies from coherent (harmonious) to incoherent limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web and Grid data resources supply coherence as in curated astronomy or bioinformatics database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can consider N plus N Grids as Coherent or Harmonious Grids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I = (NM) 0.5 . (C/M) Incoherent to N . (C/M) Coherent </li></ul><ul><li>In this language Grids do one or both of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence/Harmony – common shared asynchronous resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactivity – Increase complexity to M 2 with real-time linkage of interacting resources </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Information Complexity II <ul><li>N plus N Community database has I = N Coherent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving on N 0.5 incoherent case </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearest Neighbor groups is I = (NM) 0.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Becoming I = N in limit M = N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M is correlation length in Complex Systems approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>M-ary Interactive group (M 2 Metcalfe Grids) has C = M 2 and I = (NM 3 ) 0.5 Incoherent to I = NM Coherent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherent case most natural in science due to synergy between Metcalfe and Coherence Grids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Small World (logarithmic) networks” and hierarchical group structure require more discussion </li></ul>
  25. 25. Grids and e-globalcommunity <ul><li>Peer-to-peer networks already are a good example of value of Information Technology supporting broad global communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing, text chats, bulletin boards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grids must include these capabilities and extend in terms of increased functionality and quality of service </li></ul><ul><li>This will support business and cultural interactions between nations </li></ul><ul><li>Several interesting applications can be supported by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing files by multi-media streams so can collaborate in real-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding traditional tools like audio-video conferencing and shared applications to P2P set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This integration of P2P and Grid to give M 2 Grids impacts e-Business as well as e-globalcommunity </li></ul>
  26. 26. Outsourcing or Not? <ul><li>In the USA, over last 30 years people worried about loss of manufacturing jobs from the first wave of enterprise distribution created by “ physical communication ” </li></ul><ul><li>Now they worry about the next wave of outsourcing seen in areas like software, and movie/game animation created by e-Infrastructure – electronic communication </li></ul><ul><li>Probably this globalization of enterprises will increase not decrease as it allows one to tap the cheapest and best expertise for a particular task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Further the core software and electronic infrastructure will continue dramatic improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuming global enterprises are inevitable each community should identify its expertise and enhance its ability to work in a distributed fashion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests increasing specialization within communities </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Streaming M 2 Grids <ul><li>e-Textilemanufacturing involves Clothes designers in USA and manufacturers in Hong Kong exchanging designs which are streams of images </li></ul><ul><li>e-Sports is a possible collaboration between Indiana University and Beijing Sport University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basket ball coaches (teacher) interact with aspiring NBA players in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Martial Arts masters in China train neophytes in Indiana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty recreational sports adviser works from university with faculty exercising at home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope to have working incredibly well by the 2008 Olympics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive TV Grid : allows anybody to discuss professional or home video (of sports or other events) within a custom Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-player distributed games which should be supported with exactly the same overlay Grid </li></ul><ul><li>Video Game Production Grid links artistic direction (design) in one country with digital animation (manufacturing) in another </li></ul><ul><li>e-Science: Physics and Environmental Science Sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance Grid enables security personnel to annotate and discuss suspicious remote camera images/streams </li></ul>
  28. 28. Some Technology for Streaming M 2 Grids <ul><li>Basic capability is collaborative annotatable multimedia tool for images, sensors and real-time video streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow Grid participants to view real-time streams, rewind on the fly and add text and graphical comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to instant replay on TV but far more flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need rich metadata system to label and correlate streams, images and annotations </li></ul><ul><li>Extend Grid and P2P file access paradigms to stream storage, browsing and access </li></ul><ul><li>Core Technologies shared with distance education </li></ul><ul><li>Using http:// for multimedia services and http:// for overlay network </li></ul>
  29. 29. P2P and Server based solutions <ul><li>Peer-to-peer architectures have advantage that they can be deployed just using client resources and no system commitment is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Typically clients do not have good network QoS and it is hard for example to support rich multi-point audio video conferencing in this way </li></ul><ul><li>M 2 Grids typically require multicast so average load in P2P case on client legs goes like O(M) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server-side multicast puts O(M) load on backbone and O(1) load on clients and can lead to much better scaling and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N plus N Grids may not see such large improvements with server side support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So Grids should support initial P2P deployment with a seamless upgrade to add better QoS using Servers. </li></ul><ul><li>Extend familiar P2P paradigms like BitTorrent to Grids and Streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Grid and peer-to-peer linkage combines scalable performance with ease of deployment </li></ul>P2P Grid Farm in the Sky (clouds) Grid Servers