Internet and Computer Network-Basics


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Internet and Computer Network-Basics

  1. 1. Internet and LAN Technology
  2. 2. Chapter Contents <ul><li>Section A: Network Building Blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Section B: Local Area Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Section C: Internet Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Section D: Internet Access </li></ul>
  3. 3. Section A: Network Building Blocks <ul><li>Network Advantages and Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Network Classifications </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Scope: PANs, NANs, LANs, MANs, and WANs </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Structure: Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Topology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section A: Network Building Blocks <ul><li>Network Links </li></ul><ul><li>Analog and Digital Signals </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Protocols </li></ul>
  5. 5. Network Advantages and Challenges <ul><li>Sharing networked hardware can reduce costs </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing networked hardware can provide access to a wide range of services and specialized peripheral devices </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing networked software can reduce costs </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing data on a network is easy </li></ul><ul><li>Networks enable people to work together regardless of time and place </li></ul>
  6. 6. Network Advantages and Challenges <ul><li>Networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access from many sources and locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More vulnerable than standalone computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless networks can be tapped from a “snooping” computer </li></ul><ul><li>Networked computers are susceptible to an increasing number of worms, Trojan horses, and blended threats </li></ul>
  7. 7. Network Classifications
  8. 8. Geographical Scope: PANs, NANs, LANs, MANs, and WANs <ul><li>Personal Area Network (PAN) – interconnection of personal digital devices </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) – connectivity spread over several buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) – usually connects computers in a single building </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) – public high-speed network with range of about 50 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN) – consists of several smaller networks </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organizational Structure: Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer
  10. 10. Physical Topology <ul><li>Arrangement of devices in a network </li></ul><ul><li>Each connection point on a network is referred to as a node </li></ul><ul><li>A bridge can connect two similar networks </li></ul><ul><li>A gateway joins two dissimilar networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Router </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Physical Topology
  12. 12. Physical Topology
  13. 13. Network Links <ul><li>Wired network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted-pair cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RF signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared light </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Analog and Digital Signals
  15. 15. Bandwidth <ul><li>The transmission capacity of a communications channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-bandwidth channel (broadband) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cable TV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-bandwidth channel (narrowband) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Communications Protocols <ul><li>Rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network node to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividing messages into packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affixing addresses to packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulating the flow of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking for transmission errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledging receipt of transmitted data </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Communications Protocols <ul><li>A packet is a “parcel” of data that is sent across a computer network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit-switching technology vs. packet switching technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice over IP (VoIP) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Section B: Local Area Networks <ul><li>LAN Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul><ul><li>HomePNA and HomePLC Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Installing a LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Using a LAN </li></ul>
  19. 19. LAN Standards <ul><li>LAN Technologies are standardized by the IEEE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARCnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Token Ring technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FDDI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethernet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Ethernet <ul><li>Simultaneously broadcasts data packets to all network devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSMA/CD protocol </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Ethernet On an Ethernet, data travels on a “first come, first served” basis. If two workstations attempt to send data at the same time, a collision occurs. That data must be resent. CLICK TO START
  22. 22. Ethernet <ul><li>Varies in speed from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps </li></ul><ul><li>An Ethernet card is designed to support the Ethernet protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet hubs link workstations via cables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplink port </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Wi-Fi <ul><li>Wireless networking technologies that are compatible with Ethernet </li></ul>
  24. 24. Wi-Fi <ul><li>WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encrypts data traveling over wireless networks </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment required for a wireless network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless access point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bluetooth is a short-range wireless network technology </li></ul>
  25. 25. HomePNA and HomePLC Networks <ul><li>HomePNA networks utilize existing telephone wiring to connect network devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special NICs and cables are required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HomePLC networks transmit data over power lines as low-frequency radio waves </li></ul>
  26. 26. Installing a LAN CLICK TO START
  27. 27. Using a LAN In this drive mapping example, a server’s drive C is mapped as drive F by a workstation. After the mapping is complete, the server’s hard disk appears in the workstation’s directory as drive F and can be used just as though it were a drive connected directly to the workstation. CLICK TO START
  28. 28. Using a LAN <ul><li>You can allow other network users to view and edit files in the folders you’ve designated as shared </li></ul>
  29. 29. Using a LAN <ul><li>The Network Connection tool helps you troubleshoot connection problems </li></ul>
  30. 30. Section C: Internet Technology <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Structure </li></ul><ul><li>ISP Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Protocols </li></ul><ul><li>IP Addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Names </li></ul>
  31. 31. Background <ul><li>The Advanced Research Projects Agency designed ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet has an estimated 200 million nodes and 500 million users today </li></ul>
  32. 32. Internet Structure
  33. 33. Internet Structure <ul><li>Ping is used to find out whether a site is up and running </li></ul><ul><li>The Traceroute utility records a packet’s path </li></ul>
  34. 34. ISP Infrastructure
  35. 35. Internet Protocols <ul><li>TCP and IP serve as the primary protocols responsible for message transmission on the Internet </li></ul>
  36. 36. IP Addresses <ul><li>IP addresses are addresses that identify computers on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic IP address </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Domain Names <ul><li>Easy-to-remember names for Internet servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends with an extension that indicates its top-level domain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every domain name corresponds to a unique IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Name System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICANN coordinates technical management of the Internet’s Domain Name System </li></ul>
  38. 38. Domain Names
  39. 39. Domain Names The first step in registering a domain name is to find out whether the name is currently in use or reserved for future use. If a domain name is not available, consider using a different top-level domain, such as biz instead of com. After you’ve found an available domain name you like, you can continue the registration process by filling out a simple online form. CLICK TO START
  40. 40. Section D: Internet Access <ul><li>Dial-up Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Cable Internet Service </li></ul><ul><li>DSL, ISDN, and Dedicated Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless Internet Services </li></ul><ul><li>LAN Internet Access </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Internet Access </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Connection Roundup </li></ul>
  41. 41. Dial-up Connections <ul><li>Uses POTS to transport data between your computer and your ISP </li></ul><ul><li>A modem converts digital signals from your computer into analog signals that can travel over telephone lines, and vice versa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulation / Demodulation </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Dial-up Connections <ul><li>Modems are still required, despite digital telephone technology </li></ul><ul><li>Modem speed is measured as baud rate </li></ul><ul><li>Many Internet connection methods provide faster downstream transmission rates than upstream rates </li></ul>
  43. 43. Cable Internet Service
  44. 44. Cable Internet Service <ul><li>Cable modems convert your computer’s signal into one that can travel over the CATV network </li></ul><ul><li>Always-on connection </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood network </li></ul>
  45. 45. DSL, ISDN, and Dedicated Lines <ul><li>DSL is a high-speed, digital, always-on Internet access technology that runs over standard telephone lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DSLAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most DSL installations require service technicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DSL modem </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. DSL, ISDN, and Dedicated Lines <ul><li>ISDN connections are slower than DSL and cable Internet service, but faster than dial-up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN terminal adapter connects a computer to a telephone wall jack and converts signals to travel over ISDN connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T1, T3, and T4 lines are leased from the telephone company, and offer fast, high-capacity data transmission </li></ul>
  47. 47. Wireless Internet Service <ul><li>Direct satellite service (DSS) </li></ul>
  48. 48. Wireless Internet Service <ul><li>Fixed wireless Internet service broadcasts RF signals in order to offer Internet access to large areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless service providers are usually local or regional businesses </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. LAN Internet Access <ul><li>Cost-effective way to share one Internet connection among several computers </li></ul><ul><li>To establish LAN Internet access, you need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An operational wired or wireless LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A router or a hub with router capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A high-speed Internet connection, such as DSL, ISDN, or cable Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A modem that corresponds to your Internet connection type </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Mobile Internet Access <ul><li>A Wi-Fi hotspot is a wireless broadband Internet service offered in a public location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WISP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAP is a communications protocol that provides Internet access from handheld devices </li></ul>
  51. 51. Mobile Internet Access <ul><li>Handheld device services include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short message service (SMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia messaging (MMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music fingerprinting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>News, sports, stocks, and weather </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Mobile Internet Access <ul><li>Cellular service options </li></ul>
  53. 53. Internet Connection Roundup
  54. 54. C HAPTER 5 C OMPLETE Internet and LAN Technology