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  1. 1. Networks and the Internet 70-270: MCSE Guide to Microsoft Windows XP Professional
  2. 2. Windows XP Network Overview (Page 1) <ul><li>Supports local area network (LAN) connections </li></ul><ul><li>Supports emerging wireless technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in remote access support from previous versions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Windows XP Network Overview (Page 2) <ul><li>Can function as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server (limited) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networking components can be added and removed as necessary </li></ul>
  4. 4. Network Protocols Supported by Windows XP <ul><li>Major protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NWLink </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. TCP/IP <ul><li>An all-embracing suite of standardized protocols (more than 50) that cover wide range of capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Work began in developing technology in 1969 continuing through 1970’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became broadly available in 1981-1982 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common networking protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Internet for newsgroups, e-mail, file transfer, remote printing, remote booting, the World Wide Web, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. TCP/IP Advantages <ul><li>Supports networking services better than the other Windows XP protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple routing protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Good error detection and handling </li></ul><ul><li>Works with most kinds of computers </li></ul>
  7. 7. TCP/IP Disadvantages <ul><li>Not fast nor easy to use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of information and detail work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Configuring and managing requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair degree of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant maintenance and attention </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. NWLink (IPX/SPX) <ul><li>Microsoft implementation of Novell’s Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) protocol stack </li></ul><ul><li>Provides backwards compatibility with NetWare versions 4 and earlier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP/IP became the default protocol in version 5 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Networking Under Windows XP <ul><li>Controlled by single multifaceted interface that combines networking access for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Configured by running the &quot;Network Setup Wizard&quot; </li></ul>
  10. 10. Checking Local Area Connection Properties <ul><li>Launch “Network Connections” applet from Control Panel </li></ul><ul><li>Double-click “Local Area Connection” or other object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or select object and then F ile  Stat u s from menu bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals Connection Status, Duration, Speed, Packets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Click < Properties > button </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals NIC, all services and protocols </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Wireless Networking <ul><li>Supports IEEE 802.11 wireless standards </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as Wi-Fi networks </li></ul><ul><li>A single base station supports one or more clients </li></ul><ul><li>Client must have a wireless NIC </li></ul>
  12. 12. Network Setup Wizard <ul><li>Step-by-step, walk-through tool used to configure nondomain networks </li></ul><ul><li>Used for small offices and home networks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be executed from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Connections applet: F ile  Network Setup W izard –or – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start menu  Programs  Accessories  Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wizard on the system to be the ICS host first </li></ul>
  13. 13. Managing Bindings <ul><li>Binding is the order in which Windows XP networking components are linked </li></ul><ul><li>Affects how the system behaves and system performance </li></ul><ul><li>Accessed in &quot;Network Connections&quot; applet of Control Panel by selecting Adva n ced  Advanced S ettings from menu bar </li></ul>
  14. 14. Advanced Settings Dialog Box—&quot;Adapters and Bindings&quot; Tab
  15. 15. TCP/IP Architecture <ul><li>I nternet P rotocol (IP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides both addressing and routing information for source and destination systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses are 4 bytes (32 bits) long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each octet between 0 and 255 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast (although unreliable) connectionless datagram protocol which assumes that other protocols are available to assure reliable delivery </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. IP Addresses <ul><li>Designates network and host (any device that is assigned an IP address) </li></ul><ul><li>Subnet mask blocks network element: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An octet value of 255 is used to block the network component of the address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A value of zero does not block </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network ID's: 126 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host ID's: 16,777, 214 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usable network ID's: 1. x . y . z —126. a . b . c </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network ID's: 16,328 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host ID's: 65,534 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usable network ID's: 128.1. y . z —191.255. b . c </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network ID's: 2,097,150 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host ID's: 254 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usable network ID's: 192.0.1. z —223.255.254. c </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. TCP/IP Protocols (Page 1) <ul><li>Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends control messages including: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error messages, quality of server information, confirmations, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Ping” utility which can request response from a remote host </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. TCP/IP Protocols (Page 2) <ul><li>Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When system begins a conversation with host, requests a physical address which can be associated with the logical address </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages a defined block of IP addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigns IP addresses dynamically to computers upon request </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. TCP/IP Protocols (Page 3) <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Internet transport protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection oriented, so it provides more reliable delivery than connectionless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a port number to identify which process is to receive a particular packet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its sequencing function ensures that packets are reassembled in correct order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to acknowledge successful delivery and request retransmission of lost or damaged packets </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. TCP/IP Protocols (Page 4) <ul><li>Protocols within: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP)—directory and file manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet—remote terminal emulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)—the basis for Internet e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)—reports management data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)—the World Wide Web </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Some TCP/IP Utilities and Services (Page 1) <ul><li>Packet Internet Groper (PING) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses ICMP protocol to see if a designated host is reachable on the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can permit you to see if your own machine is attached properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At command line type: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ping machineName </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ping IP_address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ping (to view your own machine) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Some TCP/IP Utilities and Services (Page 2) <ul><li>IPCONFIG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays the IP address, subnet mask and default gateway for all network interfaces on local machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At command line type: ipconfig [/all] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NETSTAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lists </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. TCP/IP Configuration (Page 1) <ul><li>Configuration is performed through the “Network Connections” tool </li></ul><ul><li>By default seeks out D ynamic H ost C onfiguration P rotocol (DHCP) server provides an IP address upon request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Server assigns IP addresses on demand </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. TCP/IP Configuration (Page 2) <ul><li>Alternately each machine may be assigned a specific IP address manually: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique IP address for each machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subnet mask for the network to which the machine belongs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A gateway address—the node (router) on network that serves as an access point to another network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In homes, the gateway is the ISP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In enterprises, the gateway routes traffic from workstation to outside network </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. TCP/IP Configuration (Page 3) <ul><li>Alternately each machine may be assigned a specific IP address manually (con.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address of one or more domain name system (DNS) servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores and associates information with domain names providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translates domain names (computer hostnames) to IP addresses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lists mail exchange servers accepting e-mail for each domain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Windows XP Remote Tools <ul><li>Remote Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows a distant user to view your desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have control over the mouse and keyboard activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote Desktop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables you to access your client’s logon environment from a remote system </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Remote Assistance <ul><li>Designed to simplify task of training users </li></ul><ul><li>Requires an e-mail invitation for another machine to take over the invitee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invitation expires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both machines must be XP </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Messenger or MAPI-compliant e-mail utility required </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Remote Desktop <ul><li>Similar to a single client version of Terminal Services </li></ul><ul><li>Workers access work machine from home </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled through a component of I nternet I nformation S ervices (IIS) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Network Setup Wizard <ul><li>Step-by-step, walk-through tool used to configure nondomain networks </li></ul><ul><li>Used for small offices and home networks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be opened from the network tasks list </li></ul><ul><li>Wizard on the system to be the ICS host first </li></ul>
  30. 30. Network Connections Window
  31. 31. Network Connection Wizard
  32. 32. Installing Remote Access Hardware <ul><li>Hardware must be installed before remote connection established </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP inspects hardware and attempts to identify any new devices </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP attempts to locate and install drivers for new device </li></ul>
  33. 33. Phone and Modem Applet <ul><li>Primary Control Panel applet for managing remote access devices and operations </li></ul><ul><li>Used to control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialing rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure remote access devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure telephony driver properties </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Connecting to the Internet <ul><li>Connect to the Internet Wizard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose from a list of Internet service providers (ISPs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up my connection manually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the CD that I got from an ISP </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Connection Status Dialog Box
  36. 36. Internet Connection Sharing <ul><li>Used to share single network connection with small group of networked computers </li></ul><ul><li>Enabled on Advanced tab of connection object’s Properties dialog box </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Address Translation (NAT) function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) address allocator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain Name System (DNS) proxy </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Internet Connection Firewall <ul><li>Security measure for protecting network connections from unwanted traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Can set restrictions on traffic in and out of network to an external network or the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Much-needed feature for systems that employ shared broadband connections </li></ul><ul><li>Stateful firewall </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks most incoming traffic by default </li></ul>
  38. 38. Connecting to the Network at My Workplace <ul><li>Virtual Private Networking (VPN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend in mobile computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs Internet as long-distance carrier to enable distant, secure LAN connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Windows XP VPN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypts all traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setup with New Connection Wizard </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Setting Up an Advanced Connection <ul><li>Used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish direct connection between two systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer large amount of data with no network connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use serial or parallel cable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configure system to answer inbound dial-up calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can act as remote access server for single incoming connection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only for special-purpose applications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Alternate IP Configuration <ul><li>Available whenever networking connection object uses DHCP </li></ul><ul><li>Preconfigure an alternate default IP configuration if DHCP fails </li></ul><ul><li>Found on second tab in &quot;Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties&quot; dialog window for a Network Connection </li></ul>
  41. 41. Remote Access Security <ul><li>Built on Windows XP local and network security </li></ul><ul><li>Dial-up connection objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication and encryption security options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VPN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to secure remote access </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Certificates (Page 1) <ul><li>Provide proof of identity for network and Internet communications </li></ul><ul><li>Allow systems to trust unknown online parties for the purposes of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing e-commerce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product of cryptographic mechanism known as public key infrastructure (PKI) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Certificates (Page 2) <ul><li>Certificate Authority (CA): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issuing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revoking certificates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be server computer system within organization’s network or service offered by independent third-party organization </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Certificates (Page 3) <ul><li>Found by clicking the < Certificates > button on &quot;Content&quot; tab of the Internet Options applet </li></ul>
  45. 45. Internet Options Applet (Page 1) <ul><li>Used to define settings for MS Internet Explorer and general Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>General tab to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the default home page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing temporary Internet files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing the URL history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifying default fonts, colors, language and accessibility options </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Internet Options Applet (Page 2) <ul><li>Security tab to set security levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The four Web zones are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet (not in any other zone) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local intranet (on your organization's intranet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trusted sites (will not harm your computer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted sites (may harm your computer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The < Custom Level… > options are quite complex with multiple individual settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The < Default Level > uses a slider to set security for each zone to low, medium-low, medium or high </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Internet Options Applet (Page 3) <ul><li>Privacy tab to set security levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets the level personal information is or is not shared when communicating with other web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settings relate to how cookies are handled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either totally blocked or allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or accepted on some limited basis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Internet Options Applet (Page 4) <ul><li>Content tab to configure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Advisor—site blocker based on levels of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificates—identify trusted sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AutoComplete—lists possible matches from entries the user has keyed previously into the Address bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My Profile…--your online identity </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Internet Options Applet (Page 5) <ul><li>Connections tab to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage your &quot;Network Connections&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Programs tab to set the default applications for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML editing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet calling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact list </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Internet Options Applet (Page 6) <ul><li>Advanced tab to set features such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browsing functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printing background colors and images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching behaviors on the Address bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security settings </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Windows XP and the Internet <ul><li>Tools to help access the Internet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlook Express </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTP client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet client </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Information Server (IIS) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Internet Explorer <ul><li>Version 6.0 is included with XP </li></ul><ul><li>State-of-the-art Web browser </li></ul><ul><li>Tightly integrated with other Windows applications </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of security related configuration options </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used as FTP client </li></ul>
  53. 53. Outlook Express <ul><li>Popular e-mail client utility </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Microsoft Office </li></ul><ul><li>Outlook Express included in Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Used to read and write e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>Used to file and sort messages </li></ul><ul><li>Contact management tool </li></ul>
  54. 54. FTP Client <ul><li>Command-line implementation of FTP client included in Windows XP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for uploading and downloading files to and from remote servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directory services on the server (copy, rename, delete, etc.) also available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerous freeware and shareware GUI implementations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More user-friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. WS_FTP </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Telnet Client <ul><li>Simple tool provided in Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to establish Telnet session with remote system based on domain name or IP address ( terminal emulation ) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Internet Information Server <ul><li>Reduced functionality version of Internet Information Server (IIS) included with Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Allows system to host Web and FTP services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not designed or intended for public Web/FTP site hosting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be used for testing server-based dynamic Web applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited to 10 simultaneous connections </li></ul>
  57. 57. Order Prints Online <ul><li>Feature of the My Pictures folder </li></ul><ul><li>Starts the Online Print Ordering Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Requires that Internet access be available </li></ul>
  58. 58. Client Vs. Server-based Remote Access <ul><li>Select a Windows server (or another server-based system such as Unix or other server) for serious Internet hosting </li></ul><ul><li>Windows XP client is limited as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to a single incoming dial-up connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can support only 10 simultaneous network connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can share an Internet link with a workgroup </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Remote Access Troubleshooting (Page 1) <ul><li>Problems can be fairly elusive; check: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical connections (phone lines, serial cables, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to external devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly installed and updated drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly configured settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct authentication credentials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar encryption or security requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper protocol requirements and settings </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Remote Access Troubleshooting (Page 2) <ul><li>Log files: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File containing all communications made between OS and modem device during connection establishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found on Diagnostics tab in Properties window of the &quot;Modem&quot; tab for the Phone and Modem Options applet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PPP.LOG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System log </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found in &quot;Event Viewer&quot; dialog of the Administrative Tools applet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Case Projects 7-1 & 8-1 (No. 1), pp. 364 & 419