Appendix C

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Appendix C

  1. 1. Appendix C Networking www.prenhall.com/jessup Appendix C-1
  2. 2. Human Communication Messages Human communication - sharing of information, in the form of a message, between senders and receivers. Sender Receiver Initiates message by Uses receiving formulating content in mechanism (e.g. Communication the brain and coding Pathway eyes, ears) to receive in a form that can be encoded message communicated to the and then decodes receiver (e.g. voice) contents or requests message be resent Information Systems Today Appendix C-2 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  3. 3. Requirements for Communication (Computer) Senders and Receivers Must have both, with message to share, to facilitate communication Communication Medium A medium to transfer message must exist between sender and receiver (e.g., a cable) Protocols Procedures, rules, or standards that must be followed by computers when sending or receiving data Information Systems Today Appendix C-3 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  4. 4. Computer Networks Centralized Computing (1970s) Central computer (mainframe) connected to terminals (dumb). All processing done on central computer Distributed Computing (1980s) Small computers networked together allowing users to perform subset of tasks that in total are equal to that of a centralized computer while sharing information between computers Collaborative Computing (1990s) Synergistic form of distributed computing -networked computers do common processing tasks by sharing data and processing responsibilities Information Systems Today Appendix C-4 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  5. 5. Types of Computing Distributed Computing Centralized Computing Collaborative Computing Information Systems Today Appendix C-5 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  6. 6. Types of Networks Networks Collections of computers and other devices to facilitate communication – Types: • Private Branch Exchange (PBX) • Local Area Network (LAN) • Wide Area Network (WAN) • Global Networks • Enterprise Network • Value-added Network (VAN) • Metropolitan Network (MAN) • Personal Area Network (PAN) Information Systems Today Appendix C-6 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  7. 7. Private Branch Exchange PBX A telephone system in one location - connects one telephone to another to an outside telephone network. Can also connect PCs, fax, but at low phone- cable speeds Information Systems Today Appendix C-7 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  8. 8. Network Types – Local Area Network Local Area Network Spans a relatively small area allowing all users to connect with each other to share information and peripheral devices (e.g., printers) Information Systems Today Appendix C-8 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  9. 9. Types of Networks – Wide Area Networks (WAN) Wide Area Networks (WANs) Spans a relatively large area and connects two or more LANs using different kinds of hardware and transmission media Global A WAN that spans multiple countries and may include the networks of several organizations (e.g. the Internet) Value-added Network (VAN) A medium-speed, third-party-managed network. Shared by multiple customer organizations that lease lines rather than investing in dedicated network equipment Information Systems Today Appendix C-9 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  10. 10. Types of Networks – Wide Area Networks (WAN) Enterprise Network & MAN Enterprise A WAN connecting the disparate networks of a single organization Metropolitan Area (MAN) A WAN network of limited geographic scope, typically in a city-wide area that combines both LAN and high-speed fiber-optic technologies Information Systems Today Appendix C-10 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  11. 11. Types of Networks – Personal Area Network (PAN) Personal Area Network An emerging technology that uses wireless communication to exchange data between computing devices using short-range radio communication (Bluetooth), typically within an area of ten meters Bluetooth Is the enabling technology of the Personal Area Network Information Systems Today Appendix C-11 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  12. 12. Networking Fundamentals – Servers and Clients Network A network consists of three separate components: servers, clients and peers Server Any computer on a network that makes access to files, printing, communication, and other services available to users on the network Client Any computer, such as a workstation/PC on the network, or software application that uses services provided by the server. Only requests service - usually has only one user. (Fat vs. Thin) Information Systems Today Appendix C-12 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  13. 13. Networking Fundamentals – Peers Peer A computer that may both request and provide services Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P) Enables any computer or device on the network to provide or request services with all peers having equivalent capabilities and responsibilities (e.g., Napster) Information Systems Today Appendix C-13 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  14. 14. Computer Networks Telecommunications Media – Paths That Carry Information Wired Media •Twisted-pair Cable •Coaxial Cable •Optical Fiber Wireless Media •Infrared •Microwave •Satellite Information Systems Today Appendix C-14 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  15. 15. Computer Networks Telecommunications Media – Paths That Carry Information Wired Media •Twisted-pair Cable Information Systems Today Appendix C-15 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  16. 16. Computer Networks Telecommunications Media – Paths That Carry Information Wired Media •Coaxial Cable Information Systems Today Appendix C-16 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  17. 17. Computer Networks Telecommunications Media – Paths That Carry Information Wired Media •Optical Fiber Information Systems Today Appendix C-17 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  18. 18. Computer Networks Telecommunications Media – Paths That Carry Information Wireless Media •Microwave Information Systems Today Appendix C-18 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  19. 19. Computer Networks Telecommunications Media – Paths That Carry Information Wireless Media •Satellite Information Systems Today Appendix C-19 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  20. 20. Network Hardware and Software (Network Topologies) Network Topologies Refers to the shape of a network and comes in three types: Star Network Configured in shape of a star with all nodes or workstations connected to a central hub through which all messages pass (polling) Ring Network Configured in the shape of a circle with each node connecting to the next node. Messages travel around the circle in one direction. Each node examines the message and uses it or regenerates it and passes it to the next node (token passing) Bus Network Configured in the shape of an open-ended line with all nodes or workstations connected to the bus individually (contention) Information Systems Today Appendix C-20 (©2006 Prentice Hall)
  21. 21. Network Hardware and Software (Network Topologies) Star Network Bus Network Ring Network Information Systems Today Appendix C-21 (©2006 Prentice Hall)

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