Advanced Computer Networks Course Objectives

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Advanced Computer Networks Course Objectives

  1. 1. Introduction Computer Networks: Introduction 1
  2. 2. Network Definitions and Classification • Preliminary definitions and network terminology • Sample application paradigms • Classifying networks by transmission technology • Classifying networks by size (or scale) • Classifying networks by topology Computer Networks: Introduction 2
  3. 3. Preliminary Definitions computer network :: [Tanenbaum] a collection of “autonomous” computers interconnected by a single technology. [LG&W] communications network ::a set of equipment and facilities that provide a service. [PD] {low level definition} A network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or an optical fiber. Wireless connectivity needs to be included in this definition. Computer Networks: Introduction 3
  4. 4. Network Building Blocks • Nodes and Hosts: computers, routers, switches • Links: coaxial cable, optical fiber, wireless communication – point-to-point (a) – multiple access (b) P&D slide Computer Networks: Introduction 4
  5. 5. Preliminary Definitions In a distributed system the collection of independent computers appears to its users as a single coherent system. Namely, the distinctions lie in the transparency in assigning tasks to computers. Computer Networks: Introduction 5
  6. 6. Switched Networks Figure 1.3 P&D slide Computer Networks: Introduction 6
  7. 7. internet Figure 1.4 Interconnection of networks P&D slide Computer Networks: Introduction 7
  8. 8. Network P&D recursive definition:: i. two or more nodes connected by a link. or ii. two or more networks connected by a node {an internet}. Computer Networks: Introduction 8
  9. 9. W1 T X Z W2 W Y Host Host L AP W3 M Host A 2 3 W4 4 1 Host 5 B 16 nodes 14 Host 11 J Host 12 17 C 15 6 10 13 7 Host 9 H Host 8 D Host G Host E Host F Computer Networks: Introduction 9
  10. 10. Sample Application Paradigms Computer Networks: Introduction 10
  11. 11. Client-Server Applications Figure 1.1 A network with two clients and one server. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 11
  12. 12. Client-Server Model Figure 1-2. The client-server model involves requests and replies. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 12
  13. 13. Peer-to-Peer Applications Figure 1.3 In a peer-to-peer system there are no fixed clients and servers. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 13
  14. 14. Mobile Network Users Figure 1-5. Combinations of wireless networks and mobile computing. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 14
  15. 15. Classifying Networks by Transmission Technology broadcast :: a single communications channel shared by all machines (addresses) on the network. Broadcast can be either a logical or a physical concept (e.g. Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer ) . multicast :: communications to a specified group. This requires a group address (e.g. – multimedia multicast). point-to-point :: connections are made via links between pairs of nodes. Computer Networks: Introduction 15
  16. 16. Network Classification by Size Figure 1-6. Classification of interconnected processors by scale. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 16
  17. 17. Network Classification by Size • LANs {Local Area Networks} – Wired LANs: typically physically broadcast at the MAC layer (e.g., Ethernet, Token Ring) – Wireless LANs • MANs {Metropolitan Area Networks} – campus networks connecting LANs logically or physically. – often have a backbone (e.g., FDDI and ATM) Computer Networks: Introduction 17
  18. 18. Wired LANs transceivers Ethernet bus Ethernet hub Copyright ©2000 The McGraw Hill Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Figure 1.17 Companies Networks Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 18
  19. 19. Wireless LANs Figure 1-35. (a) Wireless networking with a base station. (b) Ad hoc networking. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 19
  20. 20. Metropolitan Area Networks Figure 1-8. A metropolitan area network based on cable TV. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 20
  21. 21. MAN 1* a b 2 Metropolitan network A 4 consists of access 3 A subnetworks a, b, c, d. c d Hierarchical Network Topology National network A consists of regional α subnetworks α, β, γ. β Metropolitan network γ A is part of regional Copyright ©2000 The McGraw Hill subnetwork α. Companies Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Figure 1.8 Communication Networks Computer Networks: Introduction 21
  22. 22. Network Classification by Size • WANs {Wide Area Networks} – also referred to as “point-to-point” networks. – ARPANET Internet – usually hierarchical with a backbone. – Enterprise Networks, Autonomous Systems (ASs) – VPNs (Virtual Private Networks). Computer Networks: Introduction 22
  23. 23. AMES McCLELLAN UTAH BOULDER GWC CASE RADC ILL LINC CARN AMES USC MIT MITRE UCSB STAN SCD ETAC UCLA RAND TINKER BBN HARV NBS ARPAnet circa 1972 a point-to-point network Copyright ©2000 The McGraw Hill Companies Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Figure 1.16 Communication Networks Computer Networks: Introduction 23
  24. 24. Wide Area Networks (WANs) Figure 1-10.A stream of packets from sender to receiver. Tanenbaum slide Computer Networks: Introduction 24
  25. 25. net 3 G net 1 G G G = gateway G net 5 net 2 G net 4 G Copyright ©2000 internet - a network of networks The McGraw Hill Companies Figure 1.18 Leon-Garcia & Widjaja: Communication Networks Computer Networks: Introduction 25
  26. 26. Network Classification by Topology Bus flow of data Bidirectional flow assumes baseband cable Repeater Computer Networks: Introduction 26
  27. 27. Network Classification by Topology Ring Repeater Repeater Note - a ring implies unidirectional flow Computer Networks: Introduction 27
  28. 28. Network Classification by Topology Tree Headend Computer Networks: Introduction 28
  29. 29. Network Classification by Topology Star hub, switch or repeater Computer Networks: Introduction 29
  30. 30. Network Classification by Topology Star W1 W2 AP W3 W4 Wireless Infrastructure Computer Networks: Introduction 30

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