3/16/06: System Architecture


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

3/16/06: System Architecture

  1. 1. System Architecture & Hardware Configurations Dr. D. Bilal IS 582 Spring 2006
  2. 2. System Architecture <ul><li>Two major system architectures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/Server </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Hierarchical Architecture <ul><li>Processing and activities are controlled by the host system </li></ul><ul><li>Remote computers connected to host system have limited functions </li></ul><ul><li>(input/output) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hierarchical Architecture <ul><li>Remote computers connected to the host system emulate “dumb” terminals in communicating with the host system. </li></ul><ul><li>“Dumb” terminals have no or limited processing capabilities. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>Client: a user’s computer </li></ul><ul><li>Server: a dedicated computer in a network shared by multiple users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than one server can exist in this architecture (e.g., database server, Web server, application server, e-mail server) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>A computing architecture in a LAN or WAN environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clients on network perform certain processing functions when requesting information from a server in the network </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>TCP/IP to establish communications between clients and servers </li></ul><ul><li>Clients handle the user interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>screen formatting, display of results, input/output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make requests and send them to the application server </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>Server searches for requested information and sends results to the client(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Server performs database management, information retrieval, transaction and processing tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Server delivers access to files, applications, and network communications. </li></ul>
  9. 9. File Server Architecture <ul><li>User requests information from a server </li></ul><ul><li>Entire database file is downloaded in the computer making the request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results in slow communication between the user’s computer and the server. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. File Server Architecture <ul><li>Software programs are loaded onto the server only. </li></ul><ul><li>Installing updates are done in server </li></ul><ul><li>Updates take less time to install than those in client/server architecture </li></ul>
  11. 11. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>One client may connect to one or more servers: OPAC server, Webmail server, and other servers </li></ul><ul><li>One server may connect to multiple clients concurrently. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>Each client that is connected in a client/server network must have part of the automation software (e.g., user interface) loaded onto its hard disk that allows it to perform certain application tasks. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>If all OPACs in a network must have access to the Web, all clients must have a Web browser. </li></ul><ul><li>If all clients must provide access to e-mail, they must have the e-mail client software loaded on them. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>Servers may be large scale computers, mid-range computers, or high speed microcomputers. </li></ul><ul><li>True client/server means that the application was originally designed to run on a network (LAN or WAN). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Client/Server: Two-Tier <ul><li>Database processing tasks are done in the server. </li></ul><ul><li>Application processing tasks are done in the client requesting the information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A request is generated in the client and transmitted to the server. The Database Management System that resides on the server searches for the desired information and transmits the results of the request to the client. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Client/Server: Three-Tier <ul><li>Used when applications are in high demand. </li></ul><ul><li>An additional server is used for application processing tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the client and the additional server perform application processing tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>The other server performs the database management tasks (searching, retrieval, etc.). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Types of Client/Server: Thin Clients <ul><li>Computer terminals rather than desktop computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Do little or no data processing tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Process information (input/output). </li></ul><ul><li>Used to lower PCs and Macs cost used in a network. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Client/Server: Thin Clients <ul><li>May be used as e-mail stations, Web access stations, and/or OPACs stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Can co-exist with thick or fat clients in a network. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Client/Server Architecture <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Bilal, 2002, pp. 33-34. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Bilal, 2002, p. 34. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See client/server software architecture at </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.sei.cmu.edu/str/descriptions/clientserver.html </li></ul>
  20. 20. Options for Hardware Configurations <ul><li>Non-networked (a.k.a. stand-alone) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difference between stand-alone hardware configuration and stand-alone software configuration. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Options for Hardware Configurations <ul><li>Networked: LAN-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Networked: WAN-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. ASP Model <ul><li>ASP (Access Service Provider) </li></ul><ul><li>To outsource network maintenance and troubleshooting to a vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor does database installation and update </li></ul><ul><li>Fee-based service </li></ul>