2/19/10 1 Network Protocols

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2/19/10 1 Network Protocols

  1. 1. Network Protocols
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify characteristics of TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBIOS, and AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><li>Understand position of network protocols in OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Identify core protocols of each protocol suite and its functions </li></ul><ul><li>Understand each protocol’s addressing scheme </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction to Protocols <ul><li>Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules network uses to transfer data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols that can span more than one LAN segment are routable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiprotocol network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network using more than one protocol </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Multiple LAN Protocols <ul><li>Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network can perform many different functions on same LAN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some protocols operate in broadcast mode, causing a significant amount of redundant network traffic </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. TCP/IP and Multiple Server Systems <ul><li>TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most widely used protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers a suite of protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by most network server and workstation operating systems </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) <ul><li>Suite of small, specialized protocols called subprotocols </li></ul>OSI Model TCP/IP TCP/IP compared to the OSI Model
  7. 8. TCP/IP Compared to the OSI Model <ul><li>Application layer roughly corresponds to Session, Application, and Presentation layers of OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Transport layer roughly corresponds to Transport layers of OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Internet layer is equivalent to Network layer of OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>Network Interface layer roughly corresponds to Data Link and Physical layers of OSI Model </li></ul>
  8. 9. The TCP/IP Core Protocols <ul><li>Certain subprotocols of TCP/IP suite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in Transport or Network layers of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide basic services to protocols in other layers of TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP and IP are most significant core protocols in TCP/IP suite </li></ul>
  9. 10. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>Provides information about how and where data should be delivered </li></ul><ul><li>Subprotocol that enables TCP/IP to internetwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To internetwork is to traverse more than one LAN segment and more than one type of network through a router </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In an internetwork, the individual networks that are joined together are called subnetworks </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>IP datagram </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP portion of TCP/IP frame that acts as an envelope for data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains information necessary for routers to transfer data between subnets </li></ul></ul>Components of an IP datagram
  11. 12. Internet Protocol (IP) <ul><li>IP is an unreliable, connectionless protocol, which means it does not guarantee delivery of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectionless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows protocol to service a request without requesting verified session and without guaranteeing delivery of data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Transport Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>TCP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides reliable data delivery services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection-oriented subprotocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires establishment of connection between communicating nodes before protocol will transmit data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TCP segment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds TCP data fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes encapsulated by IP datagram </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Transport Control Protocol (TCP) <ul><li>Port </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address on host where application makes itself available to incoming data </li></ul></ul>A TCP segment
  14. 15. Additional Core Protocols of the TCP/IP Suite <ul><li>User Datagram Protocol (UDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectionless transport service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notifies sender of an error in transmission process and that packets were not delivered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtains MAC address of host or node </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates local database mapping MAC address to host’s IP address </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols <ul><li>Telnet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to log on to remote hosts using TCP/IP protocol suite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>File Transfer Protocol (FTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to send and receive files via TCP/IP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for moving messages from one e-mail server to another, using the Internet and other TCP/IP-based networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages devices on a TCP/IP network </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>IP Address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical address used in TCP/IP networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique 32-bit number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into four groups of octets (8-bit bytes) that are separated by periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP addresses are assigned and used according to very specific parameters </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Loopback address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address reserved for communicating from a node to itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of the loopback address is always 127.0.0.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profit organization currently designated by U.S. government to maintain and assign IP addresses </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Addressing in TCP/IP <ul><li>Static IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address manually assigned to a device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application layer protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages dynamic distribution of IP addresses on a network </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Addresses and Names <ul><li>In addition to using IP addresses, TCP/IP networks use names for networks and hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each host requires a host name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each network requires a network name, also called a domain name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together, host name and domain name constitute the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Advantages of TCP/IP <ul><li>International language of network communications </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for use with wide range of network devices </li></ul><ul><li>Main protocol of most computer operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Many troubleshooting and network analysis tools </li></ul><ul><li>Understood by a large body of network professionals </li></ul>
  21. 22. Protocols and Applications of the TCP/IP Suite
  22. 23. Protocols and Applications of the TCP/IP Suite
  23. 24. IPX/SPX <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol originally developed by Xerox </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified and adopted by Novell in the 1980s for the NetWare network operating system </li></ul></ul>IPX/SPX compared to the OSI Model
  24. 25. IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates at Network layer of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides routing and internetworking services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to IP in TCP/IP suite </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belongs to Transport layer of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works in tandem with IPX to ensure data are received: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whole </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In sequence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Error free </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>Service Advertising Protocol (SAP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works in Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport layers of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Runs directly over IPX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by NetWare servers and routers to advertise to entire network which services they can provide </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. IPX/SPX Core Protocols <ul><li>NetWare Core Protocol (NCP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works within Presentation and Sessions layers of OSI Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works over IPX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handles requests for services between clients and servers </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Addressing in SPX/IPX <ul><li>IPX address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address assigned to a device on an IPX/SPX network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains two parts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network address ( external network number ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Node address </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. NetBIOS and NetBEUI <ul><li>Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally designed by IBM to provide Transport and Session layer services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted by Microsoft as its foundation protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft added Application layer component called NetBEUI </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. NetBIOS and NetBEUI <ul><li>NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast and efficient protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes few network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides excellent error correction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires little configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can handle only 254 connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not allow for good security </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. NetBEUI and Microsoft Windows Servers <ul><li>NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by IBM in mid-1980s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates NetBIOS for communications across a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native protocol for Windows NT Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not routable; most suited for small LANs using older Microsoft or IBM operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corresponds with several layers of OSI model </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Why NetBEUI Works Well on Microsoft Networks <ul><li>Simple to install </li></ul><ul><li>Handles large number of communication sessions on one network </li></ul><ul><li>Low memory requirements; can be quickly transported over small networks </li></ul><ul><li>Fast and efficient protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Consumes few network resources </li></ul><ul><li>Provides excellent error detection and correction </li></ul><ul><li>Requires little configuration </li></ul>
  33. 34. Disadvantages of NetBEUI <ul><li>Inability to route medium-sized and large networks; not enough information in NetBEUI frame to identify specific networks </li></ul><ul><li>Few network analysis tools </li></ul><ul><li>Does not allow for good security </li></ul>
  34. 35. NetBIOS and NetBEUI Compared to the OSI Model NetBIOS/NetBEUI compared to the OSI Model
  35. 36. AppleTalk <ul><li>Protocol suite used to interconnect Macintosh computers </li></ul><ul><li>Originally designed to support peer-to-peer networking among Macintoshes </li></ul><ul><li>Can now be routed between network segments and integrated with NetWare- and Microsoft-based networks </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk networks are separated into logical groups of computers called AppleTalk zones </li></ul>
  36. 37. AppleTalk and Mac OS <ul><li>AppleTalk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer protocol used on networks for communications between Macintosh computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectivity supported by Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows .NET, and NetWare Server </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. AppleTalk Peer-to-Peer Networking
  38. 39. Comparison of AppleTalk Phase I and Phase II Can work on a network that uses multiple protocols Functions only on a network in which it is the sole protocol Addressing uses combination of node ID and network identification Addressing accomplished by providing a node ID Maximum number of stations: several million Maximum number of stations: 254 Permits internetworking; up to 255 zones No internetworking; allows only one zone Phase II Phase 1
  39. 40. Services of AppleTalk <ul><li>Remote access to network files via AppleShare File Server Application </li></ul><ul><li>Printing services through AppleShare Print Server application </li></ul><ul><li>File services to DOS- and Windows-based systems via AppleShare PC application </li></ul>
  40. 41. AppleTalk and OSI Model AppleTalk protocol compared to OSI Model
  41. 42. AppleTalk Subprotocols <ul><li>AppleShare </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Filing Protocol (AFP) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Session Protocol (ASP) </li></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Name Binding Protocol (NBP) </li></ul><ul><li>Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Zone Information Protocol (ZIP) </li></ul><ul><li>Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP) </li></ul>
  42. 43. Addressing in AppleTalk <ul><li>AppleTalk node ID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique 8-bit or 16-bit number identifying a computer on an AppleTalk network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AppleTalk network number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique 16-bit number identifying the network to which a node is connected </li></ul></ul>

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