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Los Angeles Public Library Digital Inclusion Week

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thanks to USC’s Connected Cities and Inclusive Growth (CCIG) project at ARNIC, the Annenberg Research Network on International Communication.
A a few really quick takeaways:

– Internet penetration varies significantly across CA communities – from 60% to 98.5% – and many of the worst are in LA. The least connected community in California is in South LA with 60% internet penetration.

– High-speed internet service must be defined as a utility not a “luxury”. This is #1 priority, says Diana Rodriguez of Youth Policy Istitute.

– California’s definition of unserved broadband customers is a meager 6 Mbps down and 1 Mbps up.

– Some of the most innovative digital inclusion initiatives are happening on a city level: Chattanooga’s publicly owned Internet service has helped boost its economy and bridge the digital divide.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Los Angeles Public Library Digital Inclusion Week

  1. 1. Reducing Digital Disparities and Building Tech Inclusion Connected Communities and Inclusive Growth Hernan Galperin and François Bar
  2. 2. Outline: 1. Home Internet in California within the US context 2. Where are the unconnected Californians? Who are they? Data : – Availability è CPUC data (type and speed of service) – Adoption è American Community Survey (ACS): ~350K in CA What is the current landscape?
  3. 3. The Big Picture: California in the US context
  4. 4. California ranks 8th in home Internet penetration 85.7% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mississippi Arkansas NewMexico WestVirginia Louisiana Alabama Tennessee SouthCarolina Oklahoma Kentucky NorthCarolina Montana Indiana Missouri Idaho SouthDakota Iowa Kansas Texas Pennsylvania Georgia Michigan Nevada Ohio Florida Maine NorthDakota NewYork Wisconsin Vermont Nebraska Illinois RhodeIsland Hawaii Arizona Delaware Wyoming Virginia Minnesota NewJersey Connecticut Oregon California Utah Massachusetts Maryland Alaska NewHampshire Colorado Washington Source: American Community Survey 2016 HomeInternetpenetration(%)
  5. 5. California also ranks 8th in GDP per capita Source: American Community Survey 2016 and Federal Reserve 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 30,000 35,000 40,000 45,000 50,000 55,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 State GDP per capita (in chained 2009 US $) HomeInternetpenetration(%) California
  6. 6. Internet growth in California has recently slowed down: now connecting about 350K new households per year Source: American Community Survey 2016 8.8% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Hawaii NewJersey Nevada NewHampshire Utah Vermont Idaho Massachusetts Maryland RhodeIsland NewYork Alaska Montana Minnesota Connecticut Florida Oregon Colorado California Virginia Kansas Wyoming Iowa Washington Illinois Pennsylvania Maine Wisconsin SouthDakota NorthCarolina Delaware Georgia NorthDakota Texas Nebraska Arizona Kentucky Indiana Missouri Ohio Michigan WestVirginia NewMexico Tennessee Louisiana SouthCarolina Oklahoma Arkansas Alabama Mississippi 2013-2016 growth in home Internet penetration (in %) HomeInternetpenetrationgrowth(D%)
  7. 7. Where are the unconnected Californians? Who are they?
  8. 8. Home Internet Penetration by PUMA Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs) - Contain at least 100,000 people - Nest within states - Are built on census tracts and counties - 265 PUMAs in CA 91.3% - 98.5% 88.8% - 91.3% 85.2% - 88.8% 78.7% - 85.2% 60.8% - 78.5%
  9. 9. Internet penetration varies significantly across CA communities – from 60% to 98.5% Source: American Community Survey 2016 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% LACity(SouthCentral/Westmont) LACity(Northeast/NorthHollywood&… LACity(Southeast/EastVernon) Selma,Kerman&CoalingaCitiesPUMA; LACity(Central/Koreatown) FresnoCity(Southwest) HawthorneCity Gardena,LawndaleCities&West… Oxnard&PortHuenemeCities Ridgecrest,Arvin,Tehachapi&City… BakersfieldCity(Northeast) LACity(South/SanPedro) BaldwinPark,Azusa,Duarte&… Oakland(Northwest)&EmeryvilleCities InglewoodCity LACity(MountWashington,Highland… NorthHighlands,FoothillFarms&… SantaAnaCity(West) LongBeachCity(North) ModestoCity(West) NorwalkCity SanDiegoCity(Central/CentreCity&… Petaluma,RohnertPark&CotatiCities… ModestoCity(East) Bayview&HuntersPoint NapaCity Watsonville&ScottsValleyCities HesperiaCity&AppleValleyTown ElCajon&SanteeCities LA(Southwest/MarinadelRey&… HaywardCity HuntingtonBeachCity PerrisCity,TemescalValley&Mead… Arcadia,SanGabriel&TempleCity… PalosVerdesPeninsula Lakewood,Cerritos,Artesia&… WindsorTown,Healdsburg&Sonoma… Richmond(Southwest)&SanPablo… SantaMonicaCity Corona(Northwest)&NorcoCities Brentwood&OakleyCities Sunnyvale&SanJose(North)Cities DiamondBar,LaHabraHeights(East)… WestHollywood&BeverlyHillsCities Murrieta&WildomarCities LACity(Northwest/CanogaPark,… BakersfieldCity(West) UnionCity,Newark&Fremont(West)… SanJose(Northwest)&SantaClara… SanJoseCity(SouthCentral/Branham)… Milpitas&SanJose(Northeast)Cities TemeculaCity SanJoseCity(Southwest/Almaden… Home Internet penetration by PUMA
  10. 10. Internet penetration varies significantly across CA communities – many of the worst are in LA Source: American Community Survey 2016 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% LACity(SouthCentral/Westmont) LACity(Northeast/NorthHollywood&… LACity(Southeast/EastVernon) Selma,Kerman&CoalingaCitiesPUMA; LACity(Central/Koreatown) FresnoCity(Southwest) HawthorneCity Gardena,LawndaleCities&West… Oxnard&PortHuenemeCities Ridgecrest,Arvin,Tehachapi&City… BakersfieldCity(Northeast) LACity(South/SanPedro) BaldwinPark,Azusa,Duarte&… Oakland(Northwest)&EmeryvilleCities InglewoodCity LACity(MountWashington,Highland… NorthHighlands,FoothillFarms&… SantaAnaCity(West) LongBeachCity(North) ModestoCity(West) NorwalkCity SanDiegoCity(Central/CentreCity&… Petaluma,RohnertPark&CotatiCities… ModestoCity(East) Bayview&HuntersPoint NapaCity Watsonville&ScottsValleyCities HesperiaCity&AppleValleyTown ElCajon&SanteeCities LA(Southwest/MarinadelRey&… HaywardCity HuntingtonBeachCity PerrisCity,TemescalValley&Mead… Arcadia,SanGabriel&TempleCity… PalosVerdesPeninsula Lakewood,Cerritos,Artesia&… WindsorTown,Healdsburg&Sonoma… Richmond(Southwest)&SanPablo… SantaMonicaCity Corona(Northwest)&NorcoCities Brentwood&OakleyCities Sunnyvale&SanJose(North)Cities DiamondBar,LaHabraHeights(East)… WestHollywood&BeverlyHillsCities Murrieta&WildomarCities LACity(Northwest/CanogaPark,… BakersfieldCity(West) UnionCity,Newark&Fremont(West)… SanJose(Northwest)&SantaClara… SanJoseCity(SouthCentral/Branham)… Milpitas&SanJose(Northeast)Cities TemeculaCity SanJoseCity(Southwest/Almaden… Home Internet penetration by PUMA
  11. 11. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 Median HH income Home Internet in California by PUMA (in %) Income differences explain some of the gaps between California communities Source: American Community Survey 2016 HomeInternetpenetration(%)
  12. 12. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 Median HH income Home Internet in California by PUMA (in %) Income differences explain some of the gaps between California communities …but not all Source: American Community Survey 2016 South Central LA / Westmont HomeInternetpenetration(%)
  13. 13. Who are the unconnected Californians? They tend to be • Older • People w/disabilities • Low-income • Black or Hispanic
  14. 14. Significant gains in household connectivity among older adults, but gaps remain Source: American Community Survey 2013/2016 75.8% 90.0% 93.0% 92.5% 64.2% 82.1% 84.4% 78.8% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 65+ 50-64 30-49 18-29 Home Internet penetration in California by age group (in %) 2013 2016
  15. 15. Connectivity gains among people with disabilities: noticeable catch-up Source: American Community Survey 2016 67.8% 79.9% 83.1% 92.3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2013 2016 Home Internet penetration in CA by disability status Disability No disability
  16. 16. Low internet penetration concentrated in bottom 20% income distribution Source: American Community Survey 2016 58.9% 71.6% 80.4% 85.9% 90.0% 92.7% 94.2% 95.8% 97.3% 97.5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Income deciles Home Internet penetration in California by income decile (in %)
  17. 17. Low-income households are catching up with the rest …though still below 75% Source: American Community Survey 2013/2016 90.4% 94.5% 63.2% 74.0% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 2013 2016 Home Internet in California by Household Income Low-income households Other households Low income =<80% of median HH income
  18. 18. Income gap in full connectivity (PC + wired) remains unchanged Source: American Community Survey 2013/2016 83.4% 88.3% 54.3% 58.8% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2013 2016 Home Internet (PC+wired only) in CA by income (in %) Low-income households Other households Low income =<80% of median HH income
  19. 19. Hispanic/white gap closing, but black/white gap growing Source: American Community Survey 2016 82.0% 93.5% 75.5% 82.4% 72.5% 86.9% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 2013 2016 Home Internet penetration in California, by race White Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic
  20. 20. Who are the unconnected Californians? They tend to be • Older • People w/disabilities • Low-income • Black or Hispanic But: Do mobile phones help close the gap?
  21. 21. Mobile-only internet households are significantly poorer Source: American Community Survey 2016 24.3% 23.4% 20.0% 17.4% 15.7% 13.6% 11.1% 9.4% 7.4% 6.2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Income decile Mobile-only Internet households in California, by income decile (%)
  22. 22. Mobile-only internet households are significantly poorer Source: American Community Survey 2016 24.3% 23.4% 20.0% 17.4% 15.7% 13.6% 11.1% 9.4% 7.4% 6.2% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Income decile Mobile-only Internet households in California, by income decile (%) That’s almost half of the 58.9% connected household in the bottom decile
  23. 23. Does mobile-only connectivity explain the closing of the racial gap? Source: American Community Survey 2016 13.8% 17.6% 20.9% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% White Non-Hispanic Black Hispanic Mobile-only households in California, by race (in%)
  24. 24. Map: tiny.cc/broadbandLA thank you! Hernan Galperin: hgalperi@usc.edu François Bar: fbar@usc.edu www.arnicusc.org/research/connected-cities
  25. 25. Number of high-speed Internet Service Providers (ISPs) by census block in LA County Source: CPUC 2015
  26. 26. Digital inequality in Los Angeles: Community case studies
  27. 27. Community case study: South LA (Westmont) • Least connected community in California: – 60% home Internet – Almost half (26%) are mobile only – K-12 households: 26% unconnected & 28% mobile only • Intersectionality of factors: – Poverty (67%) – Black and Hispanic (94%) – Disability (14%)
  28. 28. Community case study: East LA (Boyle Heights) • Low home Internet adoption rate: – 71% home Internet – 16% households are mobile only • Intersectionality of factors: – Poverty (65%) – Black and Hispanic (76%) – Disability (15%) – Non-English households: 67%
  29. 29. Next steps/ongoing work • Continue to update analysis and viz tool with new data • Partner with local organizations for community case studies • Develop case studies of underserved populations (eg, people with disabilities, homeless) • Engage with policymakers and community partners to support targeted connectivity and literacy initiatives
  30. 30. Fixed-broadband subscriptions Mobile-cellular subscriptions Country or area Number Rank % Rank Number Rank % Rank Liechtenstein 29,504 122 80.4 1— — — — Monaco 13,889 140 45.5 2 15,494 138 50.8 31 Switzerland 3,317,304 27 41.9 3 3,281,402 50 41.4 39 Gibraltar 11,879 145 40.9 4 2,954 143 10.2 92 Falkland Islands[10] 1,187 179 40.5 5— — — — Netherlands 6,598,394 16 39.4 6 10,202,005 26 61 20 Denmark 2,118,541 40 38.2 7 4,851,519 37 88.5 7 France 24,780,180 5 37.8 8 34,233,625 10 52.2 27 South Korea 18,354,447 8 37.6 9 51,810,697 9 106 4 Norway 1,736,182 44 36.9 10 3,983,527 42 84.6 8 Iceland 107,895 100 34.5 11 224,568 110 71.7 15 Belgium 3,560,000 25 34.1 12 3,520,543 47 33.7 48 Germany 27,674,074 4 34 13 33,336,214 11 41 40 United Kingdom 21,455,580 6 34 14 45,419,806 9 72 14 Cayman Islands 17,750 133 33.8 15— — — — Canada 11,282,326 14 32.9 16 17,163,076 19 50 32 Luxembourg 165,994 87 32.6 17 369,430 100 72.6 11 Sweden 2,929,963 30 32.2 18 9,219,679 26 101.3 5 Malta 129,848 95 31.7 19 236,229 109 57.6 21 Hong Kong 2,257,221 38 31.6 20 5,256,334 34 73.5 10 San Marino 9,962 149 31 21 3,521 142 11 87 Andorra 26,346 125 31 22— — — — Finland 1,602,457 48 30.4 23 5,606,178 33 106.5 3 United States 87,974,583 2 28 24 234,412,672 2 74.7 9 Japan 35,556,075 3 27.9 25 144,077,507 4 113.1 2 New Zealand 1,202,952 53 27.8 26 2,823,031 56 65.2 18 Saint Kitts and Nevis 13,792 141 27.2 27— — — — Belarus 2,561,813 31 26.6 28 3,167,236 51 32.8 51 Singapore 1,396,352 50 26.1 29 6,600,483 30 123.3 1 Anguilla 3,974 163 25.8 30— — — —
  31. 31. Countries with the highest average internet connection speed as of 1st quarter 2017 (in Mbps)
  32. 32. Countries with the largest rate of high broadband connectivity as of 1st quarter 2017

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