“Coastal Tourism in Puerto Galera
       Biosphere Reserve:
 Cutting the Hands That Feed?”




                  Plenary P...
Introduction

What is Puerto Galera:
  ...to its people
  ...to the Philippines
  ...to the world
To its people:
...it is life
...a home
...a future
To the
 Philippines:              coral reef
...it is home to one of the
country’s highest natural sources
of biodiversity...
...and to the world
Puerto Galera
     was at the
  crossroads of
    pre-Spanish
   trade linking
the Philippines
   to the Near
     East, I...
Puerto Galera Bay
   ...one of the most beautiful bays in the world!

Puerto Galera Bay…




     …one of the most beautif...
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CONCERNS
         AND ISSUES IN PGBR


STRENGTHS:
1.!Abundant coastal & terrestrial resources
2.!Natur...
STRENGTHS (con’t)
WEAKNESSES
    Inadequate community appreciation of the fact that
    tourism that is anchored on clean & well-managed
   ...
What are the signs?
Top 10 Foreign Tourist Groups by Nationality
                                             1994-2002

40,000


35,000
     ...
Siltation effect on
coral, worsened by
   climate change
What are the roots of the problems?
Ecological theory seldom applied in ICAM
 But ecological knowledge -including not only theory, but also facts,
   observa...
The root cause of ‘dirty’ tourism is lack of both proper
    education & genuine community participation*
   Outline of th...
What are we doing about them?
Some research & monitoring
      activities in PGBR
!!Giant clam garden (NCMS, MBS)
!!SeagrassNet (Packard Foundation)
!!S...
…a simple, ‘best practice’ that works!
Learn well from        White Beach
    nature,
not dominate it
 simply to suit
  your wants!
                  undisturbed...
The spirit of environmentalism
CARRYING CAPACITY

        CARRYING CAPACITY IN TERMS OF NO. OF PERSONS
                  TO BE ALLOWED IN A BEACH

GUIDIN...
CCP/ha = 100 - [EL + EC + WQ + A + H +I]


100 = capacity factor (max value of parameters + 10, the latter
      is a ‘buf...
Decongest the
   coast!
Are we honestly
serious about protecting
our environment
and our heritage?

Are we willing to take
the big risk?
Many thanks!
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
Fortes Puerto Galera
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Fortes Puerto Galera

  1. 1. “Coastal Tourism in Puerto Galera Biosphere Reserve: Cutting the Hands That Feed?” Plenary Presentation Miguel D. Fortes Marine Science Institute CS University of the Philippines
  2. 2. Introduction What is Puerto Galera: ...to its people ...to the Philippines ...to the world
  3. 3. To its people: ...it is life ...a home ...a future
  4. 4. To the Philippines: coral reef ...it is home to one of the country’s highest natural sources of biodiversity mangrove forest seagrass bed
  5. 5. ...and to the world
  6. 6. Puerto Galera was at the crossroads of pre-Spanish trade linking the Philippines to the Near East, India, China, Indochina, Sumatra & Java
  7. 7. Puerto Galera Bay ...one of the most beautiful bays in the world! Puerto Galera Bay… …one of the most beautiful bays in the world! (and it was just voted the number one among these bays!
  8. 8. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT CONCERNS AND ISSUES IN PGBR STRENGTHS: 1.!Abundant coastal & terrestrial resources 2.!Natural, Cultural & Historical potentials 3.!Potentials for ecotourism destinations 4.!Proximity to Manila 5.!High literacy rate 6.!Available academic & technical support 7.!Environmental Users Fee
  9. 9. STRENGTHS (con’t)
  10. 10. WEAKNESSES Inadequate community appreciation of the fact that tourism that is anchored on clean & well-managed environment is the most sustainable form of tourism for PGBR PG has not been successful in sustaining its beauty, enhancing its natural diversity, enriching its cultural history, & mobilizing its people in protecting this legacy. In other words, it has been ‘cutting that hands that feed’.
  11. 11. What are the signs?
  12. 12. Top 10 Foreign Tourist Groups by Nationality 1994-2002 40,000 35,000 Is this 30,000 the kind of tourism 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 PG wants? 5,000 - Korea Denmark China USA Taiwan Germany Japan Australia Sweden United Kingdom
  13. 13. Siltation effect on coral, worsened by climate change
  14. 14. What are the roots of the problems?
  15. 15. Ecological theory seldom applied in ICAM  But ecological knowledge -including not only theory, but also facts, observations, research results, observations, syntheses, models, & methods of investigation -has been extremely important in developing approaches to a wide range of environmental problems.  This stems from the 'man-environment' model, given below, which identifies the essential & crucial role of ecology: ENVIRONMENT ECOLOGY HUMANS natural processes functional human needs & components interrelations & activities
  16. 16. The root cause of ‘dirty’ tourism is lack of both proper education & genuine community participation* Outline of the presentation! ‘DIRTY’ TOURISM GENUINE UNSUSTAINABLE TOURISM PRACTICES PARTICIPATION MORE & ‘BETTER’ HIGHER INCOME FOOD ‘GOOD LIFE’ PRESSURE TO IMPROVE GREED & CORRUPTION SOCIETAL STATUS *Using causal chain analysis (CCA) LACK OF PROPER EDUCATION
  17. 17. What are we doing about them?
  18. 18. Some research & monitoring activities in PGBR !!Giant clam garden (NCMS, MBS) !!SeagrassNet (Packard Foundation) !!SeagrassWatch (BantayIsay) !!Water quality & oceanography (TIT) !!Biodiversity (Tokyo Museum) !!Regional/International workshops !!Building local capacity !!Student activities
  19. 19. …a simple, ‘best practice’ that works!
  20. 20. Learn well from White Beach nature, not dominate it simply to suit your wants! undisturbed disturbed
  21. 21. The spirit of environmentalism
  22. 22. CARRYING CAPACITY CARRYING CAPACITY IN TERMS OF NO. OF PERSONS TO BE ALLOWED IN A BEACH GUIDING PRINCIPLES: 1. Ecosystem Approach 2. Precautionary principle ASSUMPTIONS 1. Based on the precautionary principle, the least acceptable change in a system is that where there are no people putting pressure in that system (hence, the capacity factor below); 2. Visitors are after positive environmental & values at the sites 3. During extraordinary periods, e.g. Holy Week, summer months, extra provisions or safeguards are instituted by all concerned to ensure that the local resources are protected 4. LGUs, receptive to environmental & economic resources protection, make the final decision 5. The major base of tourism in PGBR is its natural resources 6. The number of visitors/tourists is not enough. Other factors like timing, type of use, distribution, season, attitudes & knowledge among the visitors might be more important
  23. 23. CCP/ha = 100 - [EL + EC + WQ + A + H +I] 100 = capacity factor (max value of parameters + 10, the latter is a ‘buffer’ factor) EL = ecological importance (representativeness, presence/absence of endangered species, habitats, etc) [5=low; 10=medium; 15 = high] EC = economic importance (use as source of livelihood, e.g. fishing, mooring, swimming, aquaculture) [5=low; 10=medium; 15 = high] WQ = water quality [5 = low; 10 = medium; 15 = high] A = area in meters of the beach in question [5=large; 10=medium; 15=small] H = hazard (is the area hazardous to visitors i.e., current, sharp stones, sharks, strong waves, etc. [5=low; 10=medium; 15=high] I = investment TO PROTECT OR ENHANCE THE NATURAL STATE OF THE PLACE (some persons may have invested money, effort, other resources in maintaining the place) [5=low; 10=medium; 15 = high] Examples: 1. CCP(White Beach) = 100 – [10 + 10 + 15 + 5 + 5 + 5] CCP (White Beach) = 100 – [50] = 50 persons/ha 2. CCP(Sabang) = 100 – [15 + 15 + 5 + 15 + 15 + 5] CCP (Sabang) = 100 – [70] = 30 persons/ha 3. CCP (Long Beach) = 100 – [15 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 15] CCP (Long Beach) = 100 – [70] = 30 persons/ha
  24. 24. Decongest the coast!
  25. 25. Are we honestly serious about protecting our environment and our heritage? Are we willing to take the big risk?
  26. 26. Many thanks!

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