Definiton of the problem water shortage -> influence on food supply sea level increases -> islands are endangered destruction of mangrove belts and coral reefs decline of fishing melting of glaciers, decline of snow-covered areas extinction heat waves salinization and desertification of farmland
Definition of the problemCLIMATE CHANGE• one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats• Earth‘s average surface temperature has risen by 0,75 C since 1850• without action taken temperature is likely to rise by a further 1,8-4,0 C this century• North America: yearly increase of greenhouse gas emissions by 0,9 %
The EU• is working for a global agreementTarget until 2020:• reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 20%• share of ‘clean‘ energy: 20%• reduction of energy consumption by 20%
One main reason: DeforestationReasons for deforestation:• governmental mismanagement and corruption• economic development• ever-widening gap between the classes• population growth• livestock farming• conversion of forests into farmland
CO2 Emission• gas responsible for most of the warming is carbon dioxide, alsocalled CO2 (produced e.g. by cars, industries, electricityproduction)
EuropeCO2 Emission• Europe causes about 18,9 % of CO2 emisson of the world• main causers of CO2 Emission in Europe are:Germany (21,7%), United Kingdom (10,7%), Poland(10,4%) and Italy (9,7%)
Germany• 1. Electricity (41 %)• 2. Transport (16%)• 3. Industry (12%)• 4. Households (9%)• 5. Trade/Services/Agriculture (5%)• Germany: ca. 3% of worldwide CO2 emission
Our Region• lignite mining in the Rhenish Lignite District• cattle breeding (methane, deforestation)• manufacturing (paper industries in Düren)• industry/trade/transport on the river Rhine
Impact of Climate ChangeEnvironmental and health-related:- sea temperature rise water expands rising sea levels floodings- melting ice-caps/glaciers animals threatened, release of ice additional water in the oceans sea level rises floodings- precipitation gets more floodings also in Germany- increased droughts in arid regions (Africa, etc.) no agriculture possible- radical world ecosystem change: wildlife hasn’t enough time to adjust, because changes are too fast- risk of insect-borne / water-borne diseases in Western Europe- heat wave 2003: 7,000 victims in Germany; killed 30,000 people all over Europe - enormous heat waves could become normal!- because of hot summers and mild winters: danger of insect-borne diseases (malaria, meningitis)- increase of asthma- & heart-related diseases- changing rainfalls prolonged allergy season- biodiversity could change (increase of temperature and rainfall)- warmer parts become home to orchids and mediterranean oak trees- higher temperatures amplify the distribution of tree pests destruction of trees & crops- higher danger of forest fires
Impact on…Economic, esp. German tourism:- German businesses will lose hundreds of billions of Euro (coming decades)- particularly agricultural, tourism & insurance sectors will suffer- winter tourism threatened in any mountainous country: up to 4,5 C increase snow free resorts bankrupt owners most important ski industry- holiday resorts on German coast will boom (Baltic Sea & North Sea)
Further Consequences• endangering of world peace e.g.: war because of water shortage world GDP decrease: panic & insurrections about 5 - 20%• effects on the insurance branch: ecological desasters lead to high material damages & personal injuries• environmental refugees people are forced to leave their homecountry because of ecological desasters (e.g. reduced yields, crop failures because of droughts & water shortages)
How can YOU help reducing CO2 in your everyday life?- buy regional products (saves long transports)- use recycling paper- confine your water consumption to necessities (with regard toshowers, uses of washing machines, cooking, etc.)- turn down your heating at night and never use it at full level- avoid excessive use of the car, instead switch to cycling or public transport, like busses or trains- switching off electronic devices saves a lot of energy-purchase your electricity from renewable or even completely CO2-free sources
Alternative Energy Sources: Geothermal energy (I)• high amount of theoretically useable geothermal resources, but only small amount can be used• Europe, especially Iceland & Sweden: geothermal energy ca. 50% of energy supply of the countries• Germany: geothermal energy extraction increasing by about 14% per year• numerous projects still developing, resources in Germany possibly able to provide 29% of yearly energy demand
Hydroelectric energy (II)• Use is increasing steadily: 20% of renewable energy production is hydroelectric (worldwide)• very reliable; water can be stored -> power supply can be adapted to need very quickly• disadvantage: water quality and quantity downstream can be affected; dams often harm flora & fauna• mountainous countries (Switzerland + New Zealand): more than 50% of the consumers supplied with the help of hydroelectric energy• Germany: 5% of the annual German energy demand covered by hydroelectric power
Solar Energy (III)Pros: Cons:•Environment-friendly •energy producing depends on•Can be used everywhere the weather (e.g.: cars, roofs) •degree of efficiency not high•People are already • needs much space to be efficient experienced in the use of it•solar panels get cheaper•degree of efficiency is rising All in all solar energy is very environment friendly and the need of much space is not such a problem as you can install the moduls e.g. on your own roof. Especially in the Sahara or any other place with high solar radiation it would be very efficient.
Questions to the American group:- 1) What do you think are the main differences between our point of view andyours?- 2) Have you learned something in the project that has changed your attitude towards climate change?- 3) Do you share your country’s attitude and political line concerning climatechange?- 4) Could you explain to us why so many people in your country believe climatechange is NOT happening? 5) Have recent weather extremes changed people’s attitudes towards the issue?
Questions to the Indian group: 1) What do you think are the main differences between ourpoint of view and yours? 2) Have you learned something in the project that haschanged your attitude towards climate change? 3) Do you share your country’s attitude and political lineconcerning climate change? Do Indians in general share thisattitude?