nestor catalan


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nestor catalan

  1. 1. Reported by: Nestor D. Catalan jr. and Joy Ann Barredo
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION From an experience of real-world experience we proceed to a world of symbols. Here, we don’t see real things but symbols. Visual symbols include drawings, cartoons, strip drawings, diagrams, formulas, charts, graphs, maps, globes.
  3. 3. ABSTRACTION Your experience of the words and the graphs convinces you that a graph is easier to understand than the words of a paragraph. A graph is “worth a thousand words”. They are more clearly understood than mere words. Let us learn more about each of them and find out where they can be used in our lessons.
  4. 4. A.DRAWINGS A drawing may not be the real thing but better to have a concrete visual aid than nothing. To avoid confusion, it is good that our drawing correctly represents the real thing.
  5. 5. Example of Stick Drawing
  6. 6. B. CARTOONS Another useful visual symbol that can bring novelty to our teaching is the cartoon. A first-rate cartoon tells it’s story metaphorically. The perfect cartoon needs no caption. The less the artist depends on words, the more effective the symbolism.
  7. 7. Example of Cartoon
  8. 8. C. STRIP DRAWINGS These are commonly called COMICS or COMIC STRIP. Dale (1969) asserts that a more accurate term is STRIP. Make use of strips that are educational and entertaining at the same time.
  9. 9. Example of Strip Drawing
  10. 10. D. DIAGRAMS It is “any line drawing that shows arrangement and relations as of parts to the whole, relative values, origins and development, chronological fluctuations, distribution, etc.”
  11. 11. Types of diagrams Find out what these other diagrams are. You may ne them as you teach and as you go about your other teaching-related tasks.
  12. 12. 1. Affinity diagram-used to cluster complex apparently unrelated data into natural and meaningful groups. 2. Tree diagram- used to chart out increasing detail, the various tasks that must be accomplished to complete a project or specific objective. 3. Fishbone diagram- it is also called cause-and-effect diagram. It is a structured form of brainstorming that graphically shows the relationship of possible causes and sub causes directly related to an identified effect/ problem.
  13. 13. Example of Affinity Diagram
  14. 14. Example of Tree Diagram
  15. 15. Example of Fishbone Diagram
  16. 16. E. CHARTS A chart is a diagrammatic representation of relationships among individuals within an organization. We have a: 1. time chart, 2. tree chart, 3. flow chart, 4. organizational chart, 5. comparison and contrast chart, 6. pareto chart and 7. gannt chart.
  17. 17. Types of Charts 1. Time Chart- is a tabular time chart that represents data in ordinal sequence. 2. Tree or Stream Chart- depicts development, growth and change by beginning with a single course. 3. Flow Chart- is a visual way of charting or showing a process from beginning to end. It is means of analyzing a process. By outlining every step in a process, you can begin to find inefficiencies or problem. (Latta, 1994) 4. Organizational Chart- shows how one part of the organization relates to other part of the organization. 5. Comparison and contrast Chart- used to show similarities and differences between two things (people, places, events, ideas, etc.) 6. Pareto Chart- is a type of bar chart, prioritized in descending order of magnitude or importance from left to right. It shows at a glance which factors are occurring most. 7. Gannt Chart- is an activity time chart.
  18. 18. Example of Time chart
  19. 19. Example of Tree or Stream Chart
  20. 20. Example of Flow Chart
  21. 21. Example of Organizational Chart
  22. 22. Example of Comparison and Contrast Chart
  23. 23. Example of Gannt Chart
  24. 24. Example of Pareto Chart
  25. 25. F. GRAPHS There are several types of graphs. They are: 1. circle or pie graph, 2. bar graph, 3. pictorial graph. 1. Pie Graph- recommended for showing parts of whole. 2. Bar Graph- used in comparing the magnitude of similar items at different ties or seeing relative size of the parts of a whole. 3. Pictorial Graph- makes use of picture symbols.
  26. 26. Example of Pie Graph
  27. 27. Example of Bar Graph
  28. 28. Example of Pictorial Graph
  29. 29. Example of Graphic Organizer
  30. 30. G. MAPS A map is a “representation of the surface of the earth or some part of it.” (Dale, 1969). There three kinds of map, physical, relief, commercial, and political map. 1. Physical Map- combines in a single projection data like altitude, temperature, rainfall, precipitation, vegetation, a nd soil. 2. Relief Map- has three dimensional representations and show contours of the physical data of the earth or part of the earth. 3. Commercial or Economic Map- also called product or industrial map since they show land areas in relation to the economy. 4. Political Map- gives detailed information about country, provinces, cities and towns, roads and highways.
  31. 31. Example of Physical Map
  32. 32. Example of Relief Map
  33. 33. Example of Commercial Map
  34. 34. Example of Political Map