Nestor D. Catalan jr. and
Joy Ann Barredo
From an experience of real-world
experience we proceed to a world of
symbols. Here, we don’t see real things
but symbols. Visual symbols include
drawings, cartoons, strip
drawings, diagrams, formulas, charts,
graphs, maps, globes.
Your experience of the words and the graphs convinces
you that a graph is easier to understand than the words of
a paragraph. A graph is “worth a thousand words”. They
are more clearly understood than mere words. Let us learn
more about each of them and find out where they can be
used in our lessons.
A drawing may not be the real thing but
better to have a concrete visual aid than
nothing. To avoid confusion, it is good that our
drawing correctly represents the real thing.
Another useful visual symbol
that can bring novelty to our
teaching is the cartoon. A first-rate
cartoon tells it’s story
metaphorically. The perfect cartoon
needs no caption. The less the artist
depends on words, the more
effective the symbolism.
It is “any line drawing that shows
arrangement and relations as of parts to
the whole, relative values, origins and
fluctuations, distribution, etc.”
Types of diagrams
Find out what these other diagrams are. You may ne
them as you teach and as you go about your other
1. Affinity diagram-used to cluster complex apparently
unrelated data into natural and meaningful groups.
2. Tree diagram- used to chart out increasing detail, the
various tasks that must be accomplished to complete a
project or specific objective.
3. Fishbone diagram- it is also called cause-and-effect
diagram. It is a structured form of brainstorming that
graphically shows the relationship of possible causes and
sub causes directly related to an identified effect/ problem.
A chart is a diagrammatic
representation of relationships
among individuals within an
organization. We have a: 1. time
chart, 2. tree chart, 3. flow
chart, 4. organizational chart, 5.
comparison and contrast chart, 6.
pareto chart and 7. gannt chart.
Types of Charts
1. Time Chart- is a tabular time chart that represents data in
2. Tree or Stream Chart- depicts development, growth and change
by beginning with a single course.
3. Flow Chart- is a visual way of charting or showing a process
from beginning to end. It is means of analyzing a process. By
outlining every step in a process, you can begin to find
inefficiencies or problem. (Latta, 1994)
4. Organizational Chart- shows how one part of the organization
relates to other part of the organization.
5. Comparison and contrast Chart- used to show similarities and
differences between two things (people, places, events, ideas, etc.)
6. Pareto Chart- is a type of bar chart, prioritized in descending
order of magnitude or importance from left to right. It shows at a
glance which factors are occurring most.
7. Gannt Chart- is an activity time chart.
There are several types of graphs. They are: 1. circle
or pie graph, 2. bar graph, 3. pictorial graph.
1. Pie Graph- recommended for showing parts of
2. Bar Graph- used in comparing the magnitude of
similar items at different ties or seeing relative size of
the parts of a whole.
3. Pictorial Graph- makes use of picture symbols.
A map is a “representation of the surface of the earth or
some part of it.” (Dale, 1969). There three kinds of
map, physical, relief, commercial, and political map.
1. Physical Map- combines in a single projection data like
altitude, temperature, rainfall, precipitation, vegetation, a
2. Relief Map- has three dimensional representations and
show contours of the physical data of the earth or part of
3. Commercial or Economic Map- also called product or
industrial map since they show land areas in relation to
4. Political Map- gives detailed information about
country, provinces, cities and towns, roads and