• What is Job Design?
• What are the approaches involved in
• What is Job Analysis?
• What are the steps in Job Analysis?
• What are the uses of Job Analysis
• Job design has been defined by Davis (1966) as:
‗The specification of the contents, methods, and
relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological
and organizational requirements as well as the social
and personal requirements of the job holder‘.
• Job design is the process of defining the way work
will be performed and the tasks that will be required
in a given job.
• Job design may be defined as the function of
specifying the work activities of an individual or
group in an organizational setting.
It is a group of related activities and duties held by a
single employee or a number of incumbents.
First, to satisfy the requirements of the organization
for productivity, operational efficiency and quality of
product or service, and
Second, to satisfy the needs of the individual for
interest, challenge and accomplishment, thus
providing for ‗job engagement‘ – commitment to
carrying out the job well.
There are various steps involved in job design that follow
a logical sequence, the sequence is as follows:
What tasks are
required to be
done or what
tasks is part of
What is the
What amount are
required to be
This is through JOB ANALYSIS.
Industrial engineering is a field of study concerned with analyzing
work methods; making work cycles more efficient by
modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and
establishing time standards.
It involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work
(such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and
managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined
tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by
Work simplification is based on the premise that work
can be broken down into clearly defined, highly
specialized, repetitive tasks to maximize efficiency. The job
is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned
to an individual.
• Can increase operating efficiency in a stable
• It is not effective in a changing environment in
customdesigned products and/or high-quality services or
one in which employees want challenging work.
• Among educated employees, simplified jobs often
lead to lower satisfaction, higher rates of
absenteeism, and turnover and demands for
premium pay to compensate for the repetitive
nature of the work.
Job Enlargement: (horizontal loading)
• the worker performs a greater number or variety of tasks
in the same level of difficulty
• Also known as horizontal loading,
• Job enlargement reduces monotony and fatigue by
expanding the job cycle and drawing on a wider range
of employee skills.
A Phlebotomist works for 4 hours in the laboratory but in Job
enlargement he will work for 8 hours.
Same skills but taking more responsibilities
• Another technique to relieve monotony and
employee boredom, which involves systematically
moving employees from one job to another.
variety, motivation, and productivity. The company
gains by having more versatile, multi-skilled
employees who can cover for one another
Job Enrichment (vertical loading)
• any effort that makes an employee‘s job more rewarding or
satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties.
• Also known as vertical loading,
• Job enrichment involves increasing autonomy and
responsibility by allowing employees to assume a greater
role in the decision-making process.
• best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities for
challenge and achievement into jobs- Frederick Herzberg
Scope of job
Job Characteristics Model
• Skill Variety
The extent to which the work requires several different
activities for successful completion.
• Task Identity
The extent to which the job includes a ―whole‖
identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to
finish and that results in a visible outcome.
• Task Significance
The impact the job has on other people.
The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its
Amount of information employees receive about how well or how
poorly they have performed.
• An interdisciplinary approach that seeks to
integrate and accommodate the physical
needs of workers into the design of jobs. It
aims to adapt the entire job system—the
work, environment, machines, equipment, an
is the term used to describe the study of the
physical arrangement of the work space together
with the tools used to perform a task.
• In applying ergonomics, we strive to fit the work to
the body rather than forcing the body to conform to
the work. As logical as this may sound, it is actually
a recent point of view.
• Once jobs have been designed or redesigned, an
employer‘s performance-related expectations
need to be defined and communicated based on
• a process by which information about jobs is
systematically gathered and organized.
• is the procedure firms use to determine the
tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job and
knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to
• Job Design reflects subjective opinions about the ideal
requirements of a job
• Job analysis is concerned with objective and verifiable
information about the actual requirements.
• Once this information has been gathered, it is used for
• Job Descriptions (what the job entails) and
• Job Specifications (what the human
Training, development and career
Job design or
1. Strategic Choices
Extent of employees involvement
Levels of details
Time and frequency
Sources of job data
Existing job descriptions and
Equipment maintenance records
Equipment design blueprints
Architectural blueprints of work area
Films of employee working
Training manuals and materials
Magazines, newspapers, literatures
2. Collection of data
Three parameters in Data Collection
Types of Data For Job
(Physical, Social, Organiz
ational, Work schedule)
(Skills, Education, Trainin
Methods of Data
Who to Collect Data?
Trained Job Analysts
3. Processing of Data
Once the job information is collected it needs to
be processed, so that it would be useful in
various personnel functions. Specifically job
related data would be useful to prepare job
description and specifications, which form the
next two processes of job analysis.
Last: Develop a job description and job specification.
A job description and a job specification are the two
concrete products of the job analysis.
As explained earlier, the job description is a written
statement that describes the activities and
responsibilities of the job as well as important
features of the job (such as working conditions and
Job Description and Job Specification
• The job specification summarizes the personal
qualities, traits, skills, and background required.
While there may be a separate
describing the human qualifications, job descriptions
and specifications are often combined in a single
document, generally titled ―Job Description
―Job Description implies objective listing of the job
title, tasks, and responsibilities involved in a job.‖
Job description is a word picture in writing of the
relationships that constitutes a given job or position.
Job description is a broad statement of purpose,
scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.
• Job identification
• Job summary
• Duties and responsibilities
• Performance standards
• Working conditions
• Job descriptions should be
clear, specific, and brief
Features of Good
Up to date
Proper Job Title
Clear duties and
State job requirements
Showcase degrees of
Indicates opportunities for
Job Specification involves listing
qualifications, skills and abilities required
In other words it is a statement of
acceptable human qualities necessary
to meet the job
to perform job
Job specifications include
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required of an
employee to do the job
Qualifications in a job specification must be
justifiable, particularly education and experience
Human Resources Planning: Knowing the actual
requirements of jobs is essential in order to plan future
staffing needs and in assessing how a firm‘s employment
equity goals can be met most effectively.
Recruitment And Selection: Job description and job
specification information should be used to decide what sort
of person to recruit and hire.
Compensation: Job analysis information is also essential
for determining the relative value of each job and the
appropriate compensation. The relative value of jobs is one
of the key factors used to determine appropriate
compensation and justify pay differences if challenged
under human rights or pay equity legislation.
Performance Appraisal: To be legally defensible, the
criteria used to assess employee performance must be
directly related to the duties and responsibilities identified
through job analysis.
Labor Relations: In unionized environments, the job
descriptions developed from the job analysis information
are generally subject to union approval prior to finalization.
Such union-approved job descriptions then become the
basis for classifying jobs and bargaining over wages,
performance criteria, and working conditions.
Training, Development, And Career Management :
By comparing the knowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSAs) that employees bring to the job with those
that are identified by job analysis, managers can
determine the gaps. Training programs can then be
designed to bridge these gaps.
A Handbook of Human Resource Management
Practice 10th edition by Michael Armstrong 2006
• Human Resource Management v. 1.0 by Laura
Part 2 Meeting Human Resources
Requirements; Chapter 3 by Anne MacInnis