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• What is Job Design?
• What are the approaches involved in
Job Design?
• What is Job Analysis?
• What are the steps in Jo...
• Job design has been defined by Davis (1966) as:
‗The specification of the contents, methods, and
relationships of jobs i...
It is a group of related activities and duties held by a
single employee or a number of incumbents.

 First, to satisfy ...
There are various steps involved in job design that follow
a logical sequence, the sequence is as follows:
What tasks are
...
Industrial
Engineering

Behavioral

Human
Engineering

-Job Enlargement
-Job Rotation

Work
Simplifications

-Job Enrichme...
Industrial engineering is a field of study concerned with analyzing
work methods; making work cycles more efficient by
mod...
• Can increase operating efficiency in a stable
environment,
• It is not effective in a changing environment in
which
cust...
Job Enlargement: (horizontal loading)
• the worker performs a greater number or variety of tasks
in the same level of diff...
Job Rotation:
• Another technique to relieve monotony and
employee boredom, which involves systematically
moving employees...
Job Enrichment (vertical loading)
• any effort that makes an employee‘s job more rewarding or
satisfying by adding more me...
Direct
Feedback

Personal
Accountability

Direct
Communicatio
n Authority

Client
Relationship

Enriched
Job characteristi...
Job Enrichment

Job Enlargement

Scope of job

qualitatively

quantitatively

Employee’s feeling

Satisfied and
contented
...
Job Characteristics Model
• Skill Variety
 The extent to which the work requires several different
activities for success...
•Autonomy
The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its
scheduling.

•Feedback
Amount of informati...
• An interdisciplinary approach that seeks to
integrate and accommodate the physical
needs of workers into the design of j...
Ergonomics:
•

is the term used to describe the study of the
physical arrangement of the work space together
with the tool...
• Once jobs have been designed or redesigned, an
employer‘s performance-related expectations
need to be defined and commun...
• Job Design reflects subjective opinions about the ideal
requirements of a job
• Job analysis is concerned with objective...
Job Design
Job Analysis:
Strategic choices
Gather information
Process information

Human resources
Planning
Compensation

...
1. Strategic Choices
 Extent of employees involvement
 Levels of details
 Time and frequency
 Sources of job data
Non-...
2. Collection of data

Three parameters in Data Collection
Types of Data For Job
Analysis
Work Activities
Job Context
(Phy...
3. Processing of Data
 Once the job information is collected it needs to
be processed, so that it would be useful in
vari...
Last: Develop a job description and job specification.

 A job description and a job specification are the two
concrete p...
Job Description and Job Specification
• The job specification summarizes the personal
qualities, traits, skills, and backg...
 ―Job Description implies objective listing of the job
title, tasks, and responsibilities involved in a job.‖

 Job desc...
Job descriptions
include:
• Job identification
• Job summary
• Relationships
• Duties and responsibilities
• Authority
• P...
 Job Specification involves listing
qualifications, skills and abilities required
description.
 In other words it is a s...
Human Resources Planning: Knowing the actual
requirements of jobs is essential in order to plan future
staffing needs and...
Compensation: Job analysis information is also essential
for determining the relative value of each job and the
appropria...
 Labor Relations: In unionized environments, the job
descriptions developed from the job analysis information
are general...
http://www.managementstudyguide.com/job-rotation.htm
•

A Handbook of Human Resource Management
Practice 10th edition by M...
Job design report white
Job design report white
Job design report white
Job design report white
Job design report white
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Job design
Job analysis

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Job design report white

  1. 1. • What is Job Design? • What are the approaches involved in Job Design? • What is Job Analysis? • What are the steps in Job Analysis? • What are the uses of Job Analysis Information?
  2. 2. • Job design has been defined by Davis (1966) as: ‗The specification of the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder‘. • Job design is the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job. • Job design may be defined as the function of specifying the work activities of an individual or group in an organizational setting.
  3. 3. It is a group of related activities and duties held by a single employee or a number of incumbents.  First, to satisfy the requirements of the organization for productivity, operational efficiency and quality of product or service, and  Second, to satisfy the needs of the individual for interest, challenge and accomplishment, thus providing for ‗job engagement‘ – commitment to carrying out the job well.
  4. 4. There are various steps involved in job design that follow a logical sequence, the sequence is as follows: What tasks are required to be done or what tasks is part of the job? What is the sequence of performing these tasks? How are the tasks performed? What amount are tasks are required to be done? This is through JOB ANALYSIS.
  5. 5. Industrial Engineering Behavioral Human Engineering -Job Enlargement -Job Rotation Work Simplifications -Job Enrichment Ergonomics Job Characteristic Model
  6. 6. Industrial engineering is a field of study concerned with analyzing work methods; making work cycles more efficient by modifying, combining, rearranging, or eliminating tasks; and establishing time standards. It involves assigning most of the administrative aspects of work (such as planning and organizing) to supervisors and managers, while giving lower-level employees narrowly defined tasks to perform according to methods established and specified by management. Work simplification is based on the premise that work can be broken down into clearly defined, highly specialized, repetitive tasks to maximize efficiency. The job is broken down into small parts and each part is assigned to an individual.
  7. 7. • Can increase operating efficiency in a stable environment, • It is not effective in a changing environment in which customers/clients demand customdesigned products and/or high-quality services or one in which employees want challenging work. • Among educated employees, simplified jobs often lead to lower satisfaction, higher rates of absenteeism, and turnover and demands for premium pay to compensate for the repetitive nature of the work.
  8. 8. Job Enlargement: (horizontal loading) • the worker performs a greater number or variety of tasks in the same level of difficulty • Also known as horizontal loading, • Job enlargement reduces monotony and fatigue by expanding the job cycle and drawing on a wider range of employee skills. Example: A Phlebotomist works for 4 hours in the laboratory but in Job enlargement he will work for 8 hours.  Same skills but taking more responsibilities
  9. 9. Job Rotation: • Another technique to relieve monotony and employee boredom, which involves systematically moving employees from one job to another. • Although the jobs themselves don‘t change, workers experience more task variety, motivation, and productivity. The company gains by having more versatile, multi-skilled employees who can cover for one another efficiently.
  10. 10. Job Enrichment (vertical loading) • any effort that makes an employee‘s job more rewarding or satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties. • Also known as vertical loading, • Job enrichment involves increasing autonomy and responsibility by allowing employees to assume a greater role in the decision-making process. • best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities for challenge and achievement into jobs- Frederick Herzberg
  11. 11. Direct Feedback Personal Accountability Direct Communicatio n Authority Client Relationship Enriched Job characteristics Control Over Resources New Learning Scheduling Of Work Unique Experience
  12. 12. Job Enrichment Job Enlargement Scope of job qualitatively quantitatively Employee’s feeling Satisfied and contented More responsible and worthwhile Functions: Empowers planning and organizing Executes Planning and organizing Expansion: Vertical Horizontal
  13. 13. Job Characteristics Model • Skill Variety  The extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion. • Task Identity  The extent to which the job includes a ―whole‖ identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome. • Task Significance  The impact the job has on other people.
  14. 14. •Autonomy The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling. •Feedback Amount of information employees receive about how well or how poorly they have performed.
  15. 15. • An interdisciplinary approach that seeks to integrate and accommodate the physical needs of workers into the design of jobs. It aims to adapt the entire job system—the work, environment, machines, equipment, an d processes—to match human characteristics.
  16. 16. Ergonomics: • is the term used to describe the study of the physical arrangement of the work space together with the tools used to perform a task. • In applying ergonomics, we strive to fit the work to the body rather than forcing the body to conform to the work. As logical as this may sound, it is actually a recent point of view.
  17. 17. • Once jobs have been designed or redesigned, an employer‘s performance-related expectations need to be defined and communicated based on job analysis, • a process by which information about jobs is systematically gathered and organized. • is the procedure firms use to determine the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of each job and the human attributes (in terms of knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it.
  18. 18. • Job Design reflects subjective opinions about the ideal requirements of a job • Job analysis is concerned with objective and verifiable information about the actual requirements. • Once this information has been gathered, it is used for developing : • Job Descriptions (what the job entails) and • Job Specifications (what the human requirements are)
  19. 19. Job Design Job Analysis: Strategic choices Gather information Process information Human resources Planning Compensation Job Description Recruitment & Selection Labor relations Uses Job Specification Training, development and career management Performance Appraisal Job design or redesign
  20. 20. 1. Strategic Choices  Extent of employees involvement  Levels of details  Time and frequency  Sources of job data Non-Human Sources Existing job descriptions and specifications Equipment maintenance records Equipment design blueprints Architectural blueprints of work area Films of employee working Training manuals and materials Magazines, newspapers, literatures Human Sources Job Analysis Job Incumbents Supervisors Job Experts
  21. 21. 2. Collection of data Three parameters in Data Collection Types of Data For Job Analysis Work Activities Job Context (Physical, Social, Organiz ational, Work schedule) Personal Requirement (Skills, Education, Trainin g, Experience) Methods of Data Collection: Observation Interview Questionnaires Checklists Technical Conference Diary Methods Who to Collect Data? Trained Job Analysts Supervisors Job Incumbent
  22. 22. 3. Processing of Data  Once the job information is collected it needs to be processed, so that it would be useful in various personnel functions. Specifically job related data would be useful to prepare job description and specifications, which form the next two processes of job analysis.
  23. 23. Last: Develop a job description and job specification.  A job description and a job specification are the two concrete products of the job analysis.  As explained earlier, the job description is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job as well as important features of the job (such as working conditions and safety hazards).
  24. 24. Job Description and Job Specification • The job specification summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required. While there may be a separate document describing the human qualifications, job descriptions and specifications are often combined in a single document, generally titled ―Job Description
  25. 25.  ―Job Description implies objective listing of the job title, tasks, and responsibilities involved in a job.‖  Job description is a word picture in writing of the duties, responsibilities and organizational relationships that constitutes a given job or position.  Job description is a broad statement of purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.
  26. 26. Job descriptions include: • Job identification • Job summary • Relationships • Duties and responsibilities • Authority • Performance standards • Working conditions • Job descriptions should be clear, specific, and brief Features of Good Job Description • • • • • • • • • Up to date Proper Job Title Comprehensive Job Summary Clear duties and responsibilities Easily understandable State job requirements Specify reporting relationships Showcase degrees of difficulties Indicates opportunities for career development
  27. 27.  Job Specification involves listing qualifications, skills and abilities required description.  In other words it is a statement of acceptable human qualities necessary properly. of employee to meet the job minimum and to perform job Job specifications include  knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) required of an employee to do the job  Qualifications in a job specification must be justifiable, particularly education and experience
  28. 28. Human Resources Planning: Knowing the actual requirements of jobs is essential in order to plan future staffing needs and in assessing how a firm‘s employment equity goals can be met most effectively. Recruitment And Selection: Job description and job specification information should be used to decide what sort of person to recruit and hire.
  29. 29. Compensation: Job analysis information is also essential for determining the relative value of each job and the appropriate compensation. The relative value of jobs is one of the key factors used to determine appropriate compensation and justify pay differences if challenged under human rights or pay equity legislation. Performance Appraisal: To be legally defensible, the criteria used to assess employee performance must be directly related to the duties and responsibilities identified through job analysis.
  30. 30.  Labor Relations: In unionized environments, the job descriptions developed from the job analysis information are generally subject to union approval prior to finalization. Such union-approved job descriptions then become the basis for classifying jobs and bargaining over wages, performance criteria, and working conditions.  Training, Development, And Career Management : By comparing the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that employees bring to the job with those that are identified by job analysis, managers can determine the gaps. Training programs can then be designed to bridge these gaps.
  31. 31. http://www.managementstudyguide.com/job-rotation.htm • A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 10th edition by Michael Armstrong 2006 • Human Resource Management v. 1.0 by Laura Portolese Dias • Part 2 Meeting Human Resources Requirements; Chapter 3 by Anne MacInnis

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