Chapter 3 – Principles And Goals Of Us


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  • 15 th (1870) – African American vote 17 th (1913) – Senators now elected by popular vote (previously appointed) 19 th (1920) – Women may vote 24 th (1964) – Poll tax outlawed 26 th (1971) – 18 yr. olds may vote
  • How much power is too much power? What can happen in terms of types of government?
  • Framers anticipated there may be conflicts between states and the federal government and so the Supremacy Clause was established to deal with this In most cases, federal law reigns supreme.
  • Marbury wanted the job he was promised as a judge and sued James Madison (secretary of State) to get it. Supreme Court agreed Marbury was entitled to the job BUT – Supreme Court could not issue an order to enforce it Case is significant because it is the 1 st Supreme Court case to deem a Congressional Act unconstitutional
  • Common currency No passport to travel from state to state Power tax and enforce some laws at a federal level
  • Is fair always equal or vice-versa?
  • Federal and State – full faith and credit means that citizens of one state must abide by laws of another state when in that state. Federal government respects all laws of the individual states provided they are not in direct conflict with individual law Amending the Constitution – Need either 2/3 House and 2/3 Senate OR 2/3 (34 of 50) of states to propose formal amendment. From there ¾ (38 of 50) of states need to ratify or approve
  • Due process – must be formally notified of charges against you, fair and speedy trial, public/jury trial, right to an attorney, etc.
  • Chapter 3 – Principles And Goals Of Us

    1. 1. Chapter 3 – Principles and Goals of US Government 12 th Grade POD Ms. Nestico
    2. 2. Five Principles of American Government <ul><li>Limited Government </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and Balances </li></ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul>
    3. 3. Limited Government <ul><li>Government does not have authority in all matters – people have rights </li></ul><ul><li>Based on John Locke and Tommy J.’s notion that people have certain “natural rights” </li></ul><ul><li>Found today in our constitution in the </li></ul>
    4. 4. Popular Sovereignty <ul><li>Popular = majority of people </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty = the right to rule oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Examples found in Amendments to the US Constitution that extended popular sovereignty (5): </li></ul>
    5. 5. Separation of Powers <ul><li>Divides power between three branches of government: legislative, executive and judicial </li></ul><ul><li>Power split to prevent any one person or group from acquiring too much power </li></ul>
    6. 6. Checks and Balances <ul><li>Each branch of government is granted powers that automatically “check” the powers of the others </li></ul><ul><li>Example: while the Legislative branch has the power to make a law, the Executive branch may veto it, and the Judicial branch has the power of “judicial review” </li></ul>
    7. 7. Federalism <ul><li>Power is divided between a national government and its subdivisions (states) </li></ul><ul><li>Certain powers granted ONLY to the states while others are granted ONLY to the federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy Clause – Article VI, Clause 2 – the law according to the federal Constitution remains supreme </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Review used frequently regarding this principle </li></ul>
    8. 8. Federalism and Judicial Review <ul><li>Judicial Review – Supreme Court can overturn a law, but can’t make a new law or enforce one </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury vs. Madison (1803) – rendered as the first case that established judicial review </li></ul>
    9. 9. Parts of the US Constitution <ul><li>Preamble </li></ul><ul><li>Articles (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments (27) </li></ul><ul><li>Bill of Rights -- 1 through 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining 17 Amendments added through time </li></ul>
    10. 10. Preamble – Six Goals of American Government <ul><li>Form a more perfect union </li></ul><ul><li>Establish justice </li></ul><ul><li>Insure domestic tranquility </li></ul><ul><li>Provide for the common defense </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the general welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity </li></ul>
    11. 11. 1. Form a More Perfect Union
    12. 12. 2. Establish Justice <ul><li>To make things fair and equal for all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>over time, the translation continues to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As with popular sovereignty, it is reflected in the amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established a federal court system </li></ul><ul><li>How are we still meeting this goal today? </li></ul>
    13. 13. 3. Insure Domestic Tranquility <ul><li>Domestic = “home” </li></ul><ul><li>Tranquility = “peace” </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, this goal seeks to assure we have peace here at home within our own country </li></ul><ul><li>Established criminal laws, police forces, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>How are we still meeting this goal today? </li></ul>
    14. 14. 4. Provide for the Common Defense <ul><li>As opposed to domestic tranquility, this goal is set to protect America from foreign invasion – outside of the US. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a military, Homeland Security, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>How are we still meeting this goal today? </li></ul>
    15. 15. 5. Promote the General Welfare <ul><li>Founders felt that no person should suffer from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following the Great Depression, many welfare programs were started to combat these societal issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are we still meeting this goal today? </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. 6. Secure the Blessings of Liberty for ourselves and our Posterity <ul><li>Posterity = children or generations to come </li></ul><ul><li>The founders set this goal to assure when writing the constitution that it could not easily be changed so that freedom would be secure for all for a very long time </li></ul><ul><li>How are we still meeting this goal today? </li></ul>
    17. 17. Articles <ul><li>I. The Legislature (Congress) </li></ul><ul><li>II. The Executive Branch (President) </li></ul><ul><li>III. The Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Full Faith & Credit Clause </li></ul><ul><li>V. How to amend the Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>VI. National Supremacy Clause </li></ul><ul><li>VII. Ratification of the Constitution </li></ul>
    18. 18. Amendments – Bill of Rights <ul><li>1 st – Right to free speech, assembly, petition, press, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd – Right to bear arms </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd – No quartering of troops </li></ul><ul><li>4 th – Right to privacy – no illegal search and seizure </li></ul><ul><li>5 th – Protection against double jeopardy and self-incrimination </li></ul>
    19. 19. Amendments – Bill of Rights <ul><li>6 th – Due Process rights in criminal proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>7 th – Due Process right of a jury trial extended to civil proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>8 th – Protection from Cruel and Unusual Punishment and Excessive Bail </li></ul>
    20. 20. Amendments – Bill of Rights <ul><li>9 th – Enumerated rights - other rights aside from those listed may exist, and just because they are not listed doesn't mean they can be violated. </li></ul><ul><li>10 th – Powers reserved to the States/People - any power not granted to the federal government belongs to the states or to the people </li></ul>
    21. 21. News Article Assignment– Principles of American Government <ul><li>In groups of four, search, read and choose 4 news articles pertaining to America or American Government online and print them. </li></ul><ul><li>CNN Fox news online MSNBC Online </li></ul><ul><li>You must be able to apply one or more of the 5 principles of government to each article </li></ul><ul><li>Each person in the group should be assigned a specific principle of government </li></ul>
    22. 22. Article Assignment - continued <ul><li>The following must be answered regarding each article: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Provide a thorough, written summary of the article </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify the primary principle of government that applies </li></ul><ul><li>to the article and explain how/why. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Determine if the article is a positive or negative example </li></ul><ul><li>of the principle at hand and explain </li></ul><ul><li>4. Identify any other principles that may apply and explain </li></ul><ul><li> how/why. </li></ul><ul><li>5. In your opinion, is the way the government principle </li></ul><ul><li>being applied in this article what the Framers had in mind? </li></ul>