Nanocomposites for energy application

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Nanocomposites for energy application

  1. 1. Neslihan Yağmur 25.01.2013 Nanocomposites for Energy Application 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION 2
  3. 3. What is Nanocomposite ? 3  Composite materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties, that when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. If the size of at least one of the component constituent is nanometric then the composite is nanocomposite. http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/Journals/cp/article. asp
  4. 4. 4 Nanocomposites for Solar Energy Storage
  5. 5. Nanocomposites for Solar Energy Storage  Electron donor and electron acceptor materials is used rather than semiconductor p-n junctions.  Blending the donor and acceptor phases together to obtain a nanocomposite material. 5
  6. 6. • PCBM: [6,6]phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, acceptor • P3HT: Poly(3-hexylthiophene), donor Electron Acceptor and Donor PCBM P3HT P3HT PCBMITO Al 3.7 eV 5.1 eV LUMO HOMO
  7. 7. Electron Acceptor and Donor P3HT PCBMITO Al 3.7 eV 5.1 eV Light • Photon absorption, excitons are created • Excitons diffusion to an interface
  8. 8. Electron Acceptor and Donor P3HT PCBMITO Al 3.7 eV 5.1 eV • Charge separation due to electric fields at the interface. • Separated charges travel to the electrodes.
  9. 9. Nanocomposites for Solar Energy Storage 9  There are two ways for fabricating devices. 1. Organic donor- Inorganic acceptor 2. Organic donor – Organic acceptor
  10. 10. 10 Organic donor- Inorganic acceptor
  11. 11. First Type 11  The first structure is the inorganic–organic.  A nanoporous metal oxide substrate is used as an acceptor.  Polymeric material is used as a donor.
  12. 12. Inorganic Materials as Acceptor 12 1) Carbon Nanotubes 2) ZnO Nanorod or Nanowires 3) TiO2 Nanorods or Nanowires
  13. 13. Carbon Nanotubes 13  Nanotubes are cylindrical fullerenes. These tubes of carbon are usually only a few nanometres wide, but they can range from less than a micrometer to several millimeters in length. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fullerene#Carbon_nanotubes
  14. 14. Advantages of Inorganic Materials 14  To improve photovoltaic efficiency  To extend the photovoltaic response into the near infrared.
  15. 15. 15 Organic donor – Organic acceptor
  16. 16. Second Type 16  The second type of structure is made of a polymer/polymer or nanoparticles blend, which allows easy thin film deposition and an intimate mixing of donor and acceptor.  The most popular and efficient composite is the bulk heterojunction polymer/ fullerene (PCBM) material, which is based on P3HT as a donor and a soluble fullerene derivative (PCBM) as an acceptor.
  17. 17. 17 Solar Cells Based on Poly(3- butylthiophene) Nanowires
  18. 18. Solar Cells Based on Poly(3-butylthiophene) Nanowires 18  Suitable poly(3-alkylthiophene) nanowires useful in the composites of the invention include 1) poly(3-methylthiophene), 2) poly(3-ethylthiophene), 3) poly(3-propylthiophene), 4) poly(3-butylthiophene), 5) poly(3-pentylthiophene), 6) poly(3-hexylthiophene), 7) poly(3-heptylthiophene), 8) poly(3-octylthiophene), 9) poly(3-nonylthiophene), 10) poly(3-decylthiophene) nanowires. http://www.igm.uni- stuttgart.de/forschung/arbeitsgebiete/organische_elektronik
  19. 19. Solar Cells Based on Poly(3-butylthiophene) Nanowires Chemical structures of P3BT and C61-PCBM. Schematic illustration of nanowire network of P3BT/PCBM composites.19 •D., Olson, Y., Ju Lee, Effect of Polymer Processing on the Performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO Nanorod Photovoltaic Devices, 2007, 16640-16645
  20. 20. Highly Efficient Solar Cells Based on Poly(3- butylthiophene) Nanowires 20  TEM (a) and AFM (b) images of P3BT-nw/C61-PCBM nanocomposites. •D., Olson, Y., Ju Lee, Effect of Polymer Processing on the Performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO Nanorod Photovoltaic Devices, 2007, 16640-16645
  21. 21. References •N., Thien-Phap, Surface & Coatings Technology, Polymer-based nanocomposites for organic optoelectronic devices, 2011, 742–752 •D., Olson, Y., Ju Lee, Effect of Polymer Processing on the Performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO Nanorod Photovoltaic Devices, 2007, 16640-16645 •N., Henry, Polymer Nanocomposite Analysis and Optimization for Renewable Energy and Materials, University of Tennessee, 2011 21
  22. 22. 22 Thank You for Your Attention

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