Peter van Roste

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Internet explained: Naming and Addressing

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Peter van Roste

  1. 1. Internet Explained Part II: Naming and Addressing Peter VAN ROSTE “ Nerds in the Parliament” European Parliament 23 May 2011
  2. 2. IP Addresses <ul><li>Electronic devices need addresses to communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses are running out </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 addresses have been introduced over the last decade </li></ul>
  3. 3. IPv4 - IPv6 IPv4 IPv6 Format 91.198.174.2 3ffe:6a88:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7344 Range 4 × 10 9 3,4 × 10 38 Benefits All equipment compatible More secure Better routing – more stability IPv4 is running out
  4. 4. IPv4 - IPv6
  5. 5. The Need for Domain Names <ul><li>There are three main reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering addresses </li></ul><ul><li>Stability (the underlying IP address can change without any impact on the users) </li></ul><ul><li>Security (Requests can be diverted to avoid server overload) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Need for Domain Names 74.125.77.106 147.67.119.102 www.europa.eu 193.252.122.103 212.113.82.182 212.58.253.68 193.23.48.134 94.100.119.1 www.hyves.nl www.bbc.co.uk info@standaard.be www.allegro.pl blog.orange.fr www.google.it
  7. 7. How does it work?
  8. 8. Who’s who? <ul><li>These are the Key Players: </li></ul><ul><li>The user registers a Domain Name (he is the registrant or domain name owner) </li></ul><ul><li>The reseller selling the domain name (and often hosting or email services) is the registrar </li></ul><ul><li>The operator of the country code top level domain (e.g. .UK) is the registry </li></ul><ul><li>ICANN is the global policy coordinator for Top Level Domains </li></ul><ul><li>IANA is the operator of the Root Zone </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Rootzone Source: http://www.root-servers.org/
  10. 10. The Rootzone <ul><li>13 identical copies managed by different organisations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European organisations (Netnod and RIPE NCC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Named A to M </li></ul><ul><li>Technical operator: IANA under US DoC contract </li></ul><ul><li>Any change requires agreement of US DoC </li></ul><ul><li>323 entries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 gTLDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11 Test domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>37 IDNs ( </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>254 Country Code Top Level Domains (ISO 3166 list only) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. THANK YOU! [email_address] www.centr.org

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