IN 0.02S OF THE SHORT CLIP, WE CAN ALREADY HEAR DIEGETIC SOUNDS BEING MADE, AS THE CHARACTERS ARE WALKING THROUGH THE WOODS. THE CRACKLING OF THE LEAVES, CREATES A REASSURANCE, AND A SENSE OF AUTHENTICITY TO THE SITUATION AS A WHOLE.THE LIGHTING IN THIS SHOT, IS EXTREMELY MINIMAL,SEEMINGLY NONE AT ALL, TO ENHANCE THE CREEPY, NIGHTEFFECT.
Lighting & BlurredFocus 0.05 IN 0.05S OF THE CLIP, THE LIGHTING HAS SLIGHTLY BEEN BRIGHTENED, TO LIGHT UP HER ARIA’S (LEFT), AS SHE SPEAKS. SPENCER (RIGHT), HAS BEEN BLURRED, AFTER SHE’S FINISHED SPEAKING. THE FOCUS HAS BEEN PULLED.THIS IS A TYPICAL STRATEGY TO PULL ATTENTION TO THE MAIN SUBJECT OF THE FRAME, WHILE THE OTHER SUBJECT IS STILL IN THE SHOT.
Sound (0.10s)Suspense building music still evident throughoutthe entire clip.Diegetic sounds are still played throughout as wehear the four characters’ footsteps on the leaves.
FramingIN 0:29, THE TWO CHARACTERS ARE BEING FRAMED BY BLURRED FENCES. IT HELPSTHE AUDIENCE TO JUSTIFY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE VIEW POINT OF WHERETHEY ARE LOOKING, AND WHERE THE CHARACTERS ARE. AS WELL AS THAT, ITPLACES THE SUBJECT IN THE MIDDLE OF THE SHOT. SAME GENERALIZATIONAPPLIES FOR THE SECOND SNAPSHOT (1:16S) WHERE THE CHARACTERS AREFRAMING THE BODY, AND OUR VIEWPOINT, IS BEHIND THE TWO CHARACTERSSTANDING.
Leading Lines ALTHOUGH IT MAY BE HARD TO SEE IN THIS SNAPSHOT, THE TREES ON BOTH SIDE OF THE CHARACTERS, CREATE LEADING LINES. THIS IS EFFECTIVE, BECAUSE THEN THE AUDIENCE KNOWS EXACTLY WHERE THEY ARE RUNNING TOWARDS, HOW FAR, THUS LEADING ONTO THE NEXT SETTING.
Lighting in 0:56 IN 0:56 SECONDS ON THE SHORT CLIP, WE CAN SEE THAT THE LIGHTING IS LIMITED, JUST ENOUGH TO SHOW MELISSA’S (AND OTHER CHARACTERS)’S FACIAL EXPRESSION, WHICH IS THE KEY ASPECT IN THE SITUATION.
Eye-contact, over theshoulder shot. IN 1:11S, WE CAN SEE THE CHARACTERS MAKING EYE CONTACT. THE SHOT USED IN THIS FRAME IS CALLED AN “OVER THE SHOULDER SHOT”, WHICH IS TYPICALLY USED IN DIALOGUE. MELISSA IS THE MAIN SUBJECT OF THIS SCENE, HOWEVER SHE HAS BEEN BLURRED, SO THAT THE AUDIENCE CAN FOCUS ON WREN’S FACIAL EXPRESSION.
Media Triangle WHO IS THE AUDIENCE? --> TYPICAL TO THIS TV SHOW, THIS PARTICULAR TV PROGRAM IS AIMED AT TEENAGED GIRLS, BECAUSE OF THE GENDER REPRESENTATION.AUDIENCE OWNERSHIP
Promotional TechniquesThe ABC Family tried to showcase “Pretty LittleLiars” back in 2010, with various different launchparties, such as “Pretty Little Premiere Party”. Astrategy that obviously connects with theaudience, knowingly throwing the party based onthe age range the show is aimed at.
More on Gender Representation• MALES = MORE DOMINANT GENDER?• THE TITLE OF THE PROGRAM “PRETTY LITTLELIARS” ALREADY GIVES US A CLUE WHERE THEAUDIENCE IS AIMED AT.
Costume Code General tone and palette of clothes: Green, Black, Grey pieces of clothing. All to ﬁt with the environment. No bold colours, allows audience to focus on the scene itself. Costume choice could be reﬂecting upon vulnerability, wearing warm clothing, a sense of being “closed”, or not exposed.
Generic Conventionsand themes.The generic conventions of this particulartelevision series are:MysteryDeathSecrecy
Uses and GratiﬁcationTheory:This theory was created by Blumler and Katz.The gratiﬁcation that audiences receive fromthrillers is to be scared. The users andgratiﬁcations theory states that the audience isactively looking for this “pleasure”. In shorterwords, we look towards watching thrillers becausewe want to be scared.