• "Each generation writes its own biography in the cities it creates."
• THE CULTURE OF CITIES
• What will our cities say about this generation? While technology
has allowed us to create virtual worlds of interaction, our
collective need for memorable places, meaningful communities,
and ecologically appropriate settlements has never been greater.
The purpose of this physical planning is to enable planners to
contribute to the design, function, and sustainability of our
• Visualize scale, density, and the physical dimensions of different built
structures, transportation systems, and infrastructure requirements;
• Create and critique physical master plans with regards to their
contextual appropriateness (from diverse perspectives that include
aesthetics, function, inclusion, and environment);
• Understand how different design philosophies and traditions have
influenced form, configuration, and the distribution of uses and users;
• Recognize how development and real estate influence the products and
processes of urban design; and
• Respect present and future inhabitants of the neighbourhoods we hope
to build and recognize how meaningful community participation can
enhance their design.
• The basic definition of physical planning has changed very little
during the past few decades: Physical planning is concerned with
the general pattern of land-use, the character and location of
public buildings and structures, the design of streets, the location
and development of transit and transportation systems, and all
other physical facilities which are necessary or desirable to
promote the economic betterment, comfort, convenience, and the
PHYSICAL PLANNING PRINCIPLES
• Land-Use Patterns
• Natural and Cultural Resources
• Access and Transportation
• Life style
• Promote sustainable practices in development
• Promote sustainable practices in operations
• Encourage broad-based sustainability initiatives
• Respect the natural environment and preserve open space as much
• Integrate the natural and built environment
• Encourage sustainability and efficiency in building layouts
NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES
• Respect major landscape and vegetation features
• Maintain continuity of wildlife habitats
• Design exterior landscaping to be compatible with surrounding
native plant communities
• Maintain natural surface drainage flows as much as possible
• Protect historic and prehistoric cultural resources
• Enrich the experience for all inhabitants
• Offer adequate housing opportunities for all its inhabitants
• Create an array of facilities that enrich the quality of the city
APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL PLANNING
• Planning is sometimes described as a process to allocate chunks of
scarce resources in a logical manner for the betterment of the
society, Thus resources ( which are scarce) must be employed in
such a way that maximum return is got. Hence there are two
approaches to Planning.
• One is Rationalistic Approach,
• and the other is Incremental Approach,
• In Rationalistic Approach we go in for a Comprehensive Plan; but
the cost (in terms of money and time consumption) of
Comprehensive Surveys and Comprehensive Plan in much more.
• The other approach is Incremental Approach, plans are made in
terms of projects; the cost of surveying and plans are much less.
This also get the support politicians as it gives quick results to the
people. The main drawback of this is that, each project may not
add up to a Perspective Plan on its own unless it has Perspective
from the very beginning. None of the small project is a complete
solution to the problems.
GOALS AND INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL
• Planning process aims at certain dimensions of change – it aims to
increase the access services and facilities . Thus “Development” is
a concept of ‘Growth+Change’. A planner concern himself with
both of these criteria.
• The change is defined as clear identification of aims, and thus
change is defined as a terms of goal. Goal has a ‘Time’ aspect
with it. To achieve a goal within a time span we have to
understand the nature of the statement (of the goal). The
statements are motivated to the overall welfare.
• The Goal statement may change in certain time, as priorities may
change in time . So ordering of priorities may become necessary .
Hence Goals are divided into long term and short term goals. The
long term goals are amenable to Rationalistic Approach of
Planning and short term goals are amenable to the Incremental
• Purpose of planning is to define the change and to create the
means to bring the change. To see whether a plan is correct or not
we adopt monitoring i.e., we device some test to indicate to us
whether the plan is approaching the proper direction or not.
These are called the “Indicators”.
Urban indicators are supported to define the stages of development. A planner
is concerned with the living , working , recreation and other activities of the
people and hence , three types of Indicators , are under Urban Indicators :
SOCIAL INDICATORS :
These are general indicators which can be broadly defined as ‘measures of
aggregate wellbeing among the persons and families within a society , a city ,
IMPACT INDICATORS : These are specific indicators to access the
impact of a plan. Following a plan , the items which has been
provided are closely scrutinized to see whether the promises
made in the plan are fulfilled or not.
PERFORMANCE INDICATORS : These are precise indicators. When
various activities of a town starts functioning , then we realize
whether the plan is functional or not as many frictions amongst
the different items may arise. This can be got by “ Cost Benefit”
analysis. The plans should not only be economically viable and
physically possible but also be socially acceptable . Performance
Indicators are calculating , so they are precise.