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PHYSICAL PLANNING 
TOWN PLANNING
PHYSICAL PLANNING 
• "Each generation writes its own biography in the cities it creates." 
—Lewis Mumford, 
• THE CULTURE OF CITIES 
• What will our cities say about this generation? While technology 
has allowed us to create virtual worlds of interaction, our 
collective need for memorable places, meaningful communities, 
and ecologically appropriate settlements has never been greater. 
The purpose of this physical planning is to enable planners to 
contribute to the design, function, and sustainability of our 
communities.
ACTIVITIES DONE 
• Visualize scale, density, and the physical dimensions of different built 
structures, transportation systems, and infrastructure requirements; 
• Create and critique physical master plans with regards to their 
contextual appropriateness (from diverse perspectives that include 
aesthetics, function, inclusion, and environment); 
• Understand how different design philosophies and traditions have 
influenced form, configuration, and the distribution of uses and users; 
• Recognize how development and real estate influence the products and 
processes of urban design; and 
• Respect present and future inhabitants of the neighbourhoods we hope 
to build and recognize how meaningful community participation can 
enhance their design.
BASIC DEFINITION 
• The basic definition of physical planning has changed very little 
during the past few decades: Physical planning is concerned with 
the general pattern of land-use, the character and location of 
public buildings and structures, the design of streets, the location 
and development of transit and transportation systems, and all 
other physical facilities which are necessary or desirable to 
promote the economic betterment, comfort, convenience, and the 
general welfare.
PHYSICAL PLANNING PRINCIPLES 
• Sustainability 
• Land-Use Patterns 
• Natural and Cultural Resources 
• Access and Transportation 
• Life style
SUSTAINABILITY 
• Promote sustainable practices in development 
• Promote sustainable practices in operations 
• Encourage broad-based sustainability initiatives
LAND-USE PATTERNS 
• Respect the natural environment and preserve open space as much 
as possible 
• Integrate the natural and built environment 
• Encourage sustainability and efficiency in building layouts
NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES 
• Respect major landscape and vegetation features 
• Maintain continuity of wildlife habitats 
• Design exterior landscaping to be compatible with surrounding 
native plant communities 
• Maintain natural surface drainage flows as much as possible 
• Protect historic and prehistoric cultural resources
ACCESS AND 
TRANSPORTATION 
• Ease of access ( roads, bridges,…. Etc) 
• Parking facilities 
• Transportation facilities ( buses, metros,… etc)
LIFE STYLE 
• Enrich the experience for all inhabitants 
• Offer adequate housing opportunities for all its inhabitants 
• Create an array of facilities that enrich the quality of the city
APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL PLANNING 
• Planning is sometimes described as a process to allocate chunks of 
scarce resources in a logical manner for the betterment of the 
society, Thus resources ( which are scarce) must be employed in 
such a way that maximum return is got. Hence there are two 
approaches to Planning. 
• One is Rationalistic Approach, 
• and the other is Incremental Approach,
Contd… 
• In Rationalistic Approach we go in for a Comprehensive Plan; but 
the cost (in terms of money and time consumption) of 
Comprehensive Surveys and Comprehensive Plan in much more. 
• The other approach is Incremental Approach, plans are made in 
terms of projects; the cost of surveying and plans are much less. 
This also get the support politicians as it gives quick results to the 
people. The main drawback of this is that, each project may not 
add up to a Perspective Plan on its own unless it has Perspective 
from the very beginning. None of the small project is a complete 
solution to the problems.
GOALS AND INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL 
PLANNING 
• Planning process aims at certain dimensions of change – it aims to 
increase the access services and facilities . Thus “Development” is 
a concept of ‘Growth+Change’. A planner concern himself with 
both of these criteria. 
• The change is defined as clear identification of aims, and thus 
change is defined as a terms of goal. Goal has a ‘Time’ aspect 
with it. To achieve a goal within a time span we have to 
understand the nature of the statement (of the goal). The 
statements are motivated to the overall welfare.
Contd… 
• The Goal statement may change in certain time, as priorities may 
change in time . So ordering of priorities may become necessary . 
Hence Goals are divided into long term and short term goals. The 
long term goals are amenable to Rationalistic Approach of 
Planning and short term goals are amenable to the Incremental 
approach. 
• Purpose of planning is to define the change and to create the 
means to bring the change. To see whether a plan is correct or not 
we adopt monitoring i.e., we device some test to indicate to us 
whether the plan is approaching the proper direction or not. 
These are called the “Indicators”.
INDICATORS 
Urban indicators are supported to define the stages of development. A planner 
is concerned with the living , working , recreation and other activities of the 
people and hence , three types of Indicators , are under Urban Indicators : 
SOCIAL INDICATORS : 
These are general indicators which can be broadly defined as ‘measures of 
aggregate wellbeing among the persons and families within a society , a city , 
a neighbourhood’
Contd… 
IMPACT INDICATORS : These are specific indicators to access the 
impact of a plan. Following a plan , the items which has been 
provided are closely scrutinized to see whether the promises 
made in the plan are fulfilled or not. 
PERFORMANCE INDICATORS : These are precise indicators. When 
various activities of a town starts functioning , then we realize 
whether the plan is functional or not as many frictions amongst 
the different items may arise. This can be got by “ Cost Benefit” 
analysis. The plans should not only be economically viable and 
physically possible but also be socially acceptable . Performance 
Indicators are calculating , so they are precise.
THANK YOU

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Physical planning in town planning

  • 2. PHYSICAL PLANNING • "Each generation writes its own biography in the cities it creates." —Lewis Mumford, • THE CULTURE OF CITIES • What will our cities say about this generation? While technology has allowed us to create virtual worlds of interaction, our collective need for memorable places, meaningful communities, and ecologically appropriate settlements has never been greater. The purpose of this physical planning is to enable planners to contribute to the design, function, and sustainability of our communities.
  • 3. ACTIVITIES DONE • Visualize scale, density, and the physical dimensions of different built structures, transportation systems, and infrastructure requirements; • Create and critique physical master plans with regards to their contextual appropriateness (from diverse perspectives that include aesthetics, function, inclusion, and environment); • Understand how different design philosophies and traditions have influenced form, configuration, and the distribution of uses and users; • Recognize how development and real estate influence the products and processes of urban design; and • Respect present and future inhabitants of the neighbourhoods we hope to build and recognize how meaningful community participation can enhance their design.
  • 4. BASIC DEFINITION • The basic definition of physical planning has changed very little during the past few decades: Physical planning is concerned with the general pattern of land-use, the character and location of public buildings and structures, the design of streets, the location and development of transit and transportation systems, and all other physical facilities which are necessary or desirable to promote the economic betterment, comfort, convenience, and the general welfare.
  • 5. PHYSICAL PLANNING PRINCIPLES • Sustainability • Land-Use Patterns • Natural and Cultural Resources • Access and Transportation • Life style
  • 6. SUSTAINABILITY • Promote sustainable practices in development • Promote sustainable practices in operations • Encourage broad-based sustainability initiatives
  • 7. LAND-USE PATTERNS • Respect the natural environment and preserve open space as much as possible • Integrate the natural and built environment • Encourage sustainability and efficiency in building layouts
  • 8. NATURAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES • Respect major landscape and vegetation features • Maintain continuity of wildlife habitats • Design exterior landscaping to be compatible with surrounding native plant communities • Maintain natural surface drainage flows as much as possible • Protect historic and prehistoric cultural resources
  • 9. ACCESS AND TRANSPORTATION • Ease of access ( roads, bridges,…. Etc) • Parking facilities • Transportation facilities ( buses, metros,… etc)
  • 10. LIFE STYLE • Enrich the experience for all inhabitants • Offer adequate housing opportunities for all its inhabitants • Create an array of facilities that enrich the quality of the city
  • 11. APPROACHES TO PHYSICAL PLANNING • Planning is sometimes described as a process to allocate chunks of scarce resources in a logical manner for the betterment of the society, Thus resources ( which are scarce) must be employed in such a way that maximum return is got. Hence there are two approaches to Planning. • One is Rationalistic Approach, • and the other is Incremental Approach,
  • 12. Contd… • In Rationalistic Approach we go in for a Comprehensive Plan; but the cost (in terms of money and time consumption) of Comprehensive Surveys and Comprehensive Plan in much more. • The other approach is Incremental Approach, plans are made in terms of projects; the cost of surveying and plans are much less. This also get the support politicians as it gives quick results to the people. The main drawback of this is that, each project may not add up to a Perspective Plan on its own unless it has Perspective from the very beginning. None of the small project is a complete solution to the problems.
  • 13. GOALS AND INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL PLANNING • Planning process aims at certain dimensions of change – it aims to increase the access services and facilities . Thus “Development” is a concept of ‘Growth+Change’. A planner concern himself with both of these criteria. • The change is defined as clear identification of aims, and thus change is defined as a terms of goal. Goal has a ‘Time’ aspect with it. To achieve a goal within a time span we have to understand the nature of the statement (of the goal). The statements are motivated to the overall welfare.
  • 14. Contd… • The Goal statement may change in certain time, as priorities may change in time . So ordering of priorities may become necessary . Hence Goals are divided into long term and short term goals. The long term goals are amenable to Rationalistic Approach of Planning and short term goals are amenable to the Incremental approach. • Purpose of planning is to define the change and to create the means to bring the change. To see whether a plan is correct or not we adopt monitoring i.e., we device some test to indicate to us whether the plan is approaching the proper direction or not. These are called the “Indicators”.
  • 15. INDICATORS Urban indicators are supported to define the stages of development. A planner is concerned with the living , working , recreation and other activities of the people and hence , three types of Indicators , are under Urban Indicators : SOCIAL INDICATORS : These are general indicators which can be broadly defined as ‘measures of aggregate wellbeing among the persons and families within a society , a city , a neighbourhood’
  • 16. Contd… IMPACT INDICATORS : These are specific indicators to access the impact of a plan. Following a plan , the items which has been provided are closely scrutinized to see whether the promises made in the plan are fulfilled or not. PERFORMANCE INDICATORS : These are precise indicators. When various activities of a town starts functioning , then we realize whether the plan is functional or not as many frictions amongst the different items may arise. This can be got by “ Cost Benefit” analysis. The plans should not only be economically viable and physically possible but also be socially acceptable . Performance Indicators are calculating , so they are precise.