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Artificial Illumination And
Night Lighting
• Brief Background
•Various Basic Terminologies And Definitions
Background
 From the dawn of civilization until
recent times, human beings created
light solely from fire, though it is more
a source of heat than light. We are still
using the same principle in modern
sophisticated fixtures.
Light
 Light is just one portion of the various
electromagnetic waves flying through space.
These waves have both a frequency and a
length.
 Visible light can be seen on the
electromagnetic spectrum.
Definitions:
 Luminaire: A luminaire is a complete lighting unit, consisting
of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to
distribute/enhance the light, position and protect the lamps,
and connect the lamps to the power supply.
 Lumen: Unit of luminous flux; the flux emitted within a unit
solid angle by a point source with a uniform luminous
intensity of one candela. One lux is one lumen per square
meter.
 Lux: This is the metric unit of measure for illuminance of a
surface. The difference between the lux and the lumen is that
the lux takes into account the area over which the luminous
flux is spread.
 Luminous Intensity and Flux: The unit of luminous
intensity I is the candela (cd) also known as the
international candle.
Luminous flux (lm) = 4π × luminous intensity (cd)
 Installed Load Efficacy: This is the average maintained
illuminance provided on a horizontal working plane per
circuit watt with general lighting of an interior expressed in
lux/W/m².
 Room Index: This is a ratio, which relates the plan
dimensions of the whole room to the height between the
working plane and the plane of the fittings.
 Utilization factor (UF): This is the proportion of the
luminous flux emitted by the lamps, reaching the working
plane. It is a measure of the effectiveness of the lighting
The Inverse Square Law
The inverse square law defines the relationship
between the luminance from a point source and
distance. It states that the intensity of light per unit
area is inversely proportional to the square of the
distance from the source (essentially the radius).
E = I / d 2
Where,
E = illuminance,
I = luminous intensity and
d = distance
Or
E1 d1² = E2 d2²
Types Of Lighting Systems
 Incandescent (GLS) Lamps
 Fluorescent Lamps: Passing electricity through a gas
or metallic vapour
 Tungsten--Halogen Lamps: filled with halogen gas.
 Compact fluorescents lamps
 Sodium Lamps
Mercury Vapour Lamps
Metal Halide Lamps
Lighting Design For Interiors:
 Step 1: Decide the required illuminance on work plane, the
type of lamp and luminaire.
 Step 1I: Collect the room data i.e. room dimensions, surface
reflectance. work plane height, luminaire height.
 Step III: Calculate room index
 Step IV: Calculating the Utilization factor. Using tables
available from manufacturers, it is possible to determine the
utilization factor for different light fittings.
 Step V: Calculate the number of fittings required by applying
the following formula: Where:
N = Number of fittings
E = Lux level required on working plane
A = Area of room (L x W)
F = Total flux (Lumens) from all the lamps in
one fitting
UF = Utilisation factor.
LLF = Light loss factor.
Step VI: Space the luminaires to achieve desired
uniformity
 DESIGN AIDS
Azimuth And Altitude Angles
SOLAR CHART
HELIODON
 A heliodon (HEE-leo-don) is a device for adjusting the angle
between a flat surface and a beam of light to match the angle
between a horizontal plane at a specific latitude and the solar
beam.
 Heliodons are used by placing a model building on the
heliodon’s flat surface and making adjustments to the
light/surface angle, it can be seen how the building would
look in the three dimensional solar beam at various dates and
times of day.
 Heliodons can mimic latitude, time of day, and date.
CLIMATE ORIENTED SOFTWARE AND
OTHER ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES.
Thermal Analysis Tools:
Autodesk Green Building Studio Web-based
Service, Energyplus, HTB2, ESP-r and Ecotech.
AUTODESK ECOTECT
ANALYSIS
 It is a comprehensive, concept-to-detail sustainable design
analysis tool, providing a wide range of simulation and
analysis.
 It can be used to analyze residential, commercial, and
institutional project types.
 Existing buildings can also be analyzed using Autodesk
Ecotect Analysis, provided that there is a building information
model to submit that approximates the building’s geometry.
 Analyses:
◦ Thermal calculations
◦ Acoustic calculations
◦ Day lighting
◦ Lighting and shadow calculations
◦ Whole-building energy analysis
◦ Water usage and cost evaluation
THE END

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Artificial Lighting Basics and Design Fundamentals

  • 1. Artificial Illumination And Night Lighting • Brief Background •Various Basic Terminologies And Definitions
  • 2. Background  From the dawn of civilization until recent times, human beings created light solely from fire, though it is more a source of heat than light. We are still using the same principle in modern sophisticated fixtures.
  • 3. Light  Light is just one portion of the various electromagnetic waves flying through space. These waves have both a frequency and a length.  Visible light can be seen on the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • 4. Definitions:  Luminaire: A luminaire is a complete lighting unit, consisting of a lamp or lamps together with the parts designed to distribute/enhance the light, position and protect the lamps, and connect the lamps to the power supply.  Lumen: Unit of luminous flux; the flux emitted within a unit solid angle by a point source with a uniform luminous intensity of one candela. One lux is one lumen per square meter.  Lux: This is the metric unit of measure for illuminance of a surface. The difference between the lux and the lumen is that the lux takes into account the area over which the luminous flux is spread.
  • 5.  Luminous Intensity and Flux: The unit of luminous intensity I is the candela (cd) also known as the international candle. Luminous flux (lm) = 4π × luminous intensity (cd)  Installed Load Efficacy: This is the average maintained illuminance provided on a horizontal working plane per circuit watt with general lighting of an interior expressed in lux/W/m².  Room Index: This is a ratio, which relates the plan dimensions of the whole room to the height between the working plane and the plane of the fittings.  Utilization factor (UF): This is the proportion of the luminous flux emitted by the lamps, reaching the working plane. It is a measure of the effectiveness of the lighting
  • 6. The Inverse Square Law The inverse square law defines the relationship between the luminance from a point source and distance. It states that the intensity of light per unit area is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source (essentially the radius). E = I / d 2 Where, E = illuminance, I = luminous intensity and d = distance Or E1 d1² = E2 d2²
  • 7. Types Of Lighting Systems  Incandescent (GLS) Lamps
  • 8.  Fluorescent Lamps: Passing electricity through a gas or metallic vapour  Tungsten--Halogen Lamps: filled with halogen gas.
  • 9.  Compact fluorescents lamps  Sodium Lamps
  • 11. Lighting Design For Interiors:  Step 1: Decide the required illuminance on work plane, the type of lamp and luminaire.  Step 1I: Collect the room data i.e. room dimensions, surface reflectance. work plane height, luminaire height.  Step III: Calculate room index  Step IV: Calculating the Utilization factor. Using tables available from manufacturers, it is possible to determine the utilization factor for different light fittings.  Step V: Calculate the number of fittings required by applying the following formula: Where: N = Number of fittings E = Lux level required on working plane A = Area of room (L x W) F = Total flux (Lumens) from all the lamps in one fitting UF = Utilisation factor. LLF = Light loss factor. Step VI: Space the luminaires to achieve desired uniformity
  • 15.
  • 16. HELIODON  A heliodon (HEE-leo-don) is a device for adjusting the angle between a flat surface and a beam of light to match the angle between a horizontal plane at a specific latitude and the solar beam.  Heliodons are used by placing a model building on the heliodon’s flat surface and making adjustments to the light/surface angle, it can be seen how the building would look in the three dimensional solar beam at various dates and times of day.  Heliodons can mimic latitude, time of day, and date.
  • 17.
  • 18. CLIMATE ORIENTED SOFTWARE AND OTHER ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES. Thermal Analysis Tools: Autodesk Green Building Studio Web-based Service, Energyplus, HTB2, ESP-r and Ecotech.
  • 19. AUTODESK ECOTECT ANALYSIS  It is a comprehensive, concept-to-detail sustainable design analysis tool, providing a wide range of simulation and analysis.  It can be used to analyze residential, commercial, and institutional project types.  Existing buildings can also be analyzed using Autodesk Ecotect Analysis, provided that there is a building information model to submit that approximates the building’s geometry.  Analyses: ◦ Thermal calculations ◦ Acoustic calculations ◦ Day lighting ◦ Lighting and shadow calculations ◦ Whole-building energy analysis ◦ Water usage and cost evaluation