Implementing Open Source


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Implementing Open Source

  1. 1. Implementing Open SourceNicole C. EngardVice President of Education, ByWater SolutionsAuthor, The Accidental Systems Librarian 2d &Practical Open Source Software for & opensource.web2learning.netnengard@bywatersolutions.comSunday, June 9, 13
  2. 2. Disclaimers• I  work  for  a  company  that  supports  Koha• I  am  the  documenta6on  manager  for  Koha  • My  bias  is  simple:  I  personally  want  all  libraries  to  use  and  support  any  and  all  open  source  and  want  you  to  choose  what’s  right  for  you  and  your  library!Sunday, June 9, 13
  3. 3. What is Open Source?Sunday, June 9, 13
  4. 4. What isn’t Open Source?• “Isn’t  that  insecure?”• “I  don’t  want  to  share  my  data!”• “How  can  it  be  any  good  if  it’s  free?”• “We  don’t  have  the  staff  to  handle  open  source.”Common  Open  Source  FUD  (Fear,  Uncertainty  &  Doubt)Comic: Author: Unknown | Year: Unknown | Source: UnknownSunday, June 9, 13
  5. 5. What is Open Source?Open  source  soHware  is  soHware  that  users  have  the  ability  to  run,  distribute,  study  and  modify  for  any  purpose.Open  source  is  a  collabora6ve  soHware-­‐development  method  that  harnesses  the  power  of  peer  review  and  transparency  of  process  to  develop  code  that  is  freely  accessible.1  Open  source  draws  on  an  ecosystem  of  thousands  of  developers  and  customers  all  over  the  world  to  drive  innova6on.2                                                1,2  h<p://, June 9, 13
  6. 6. The  Cathedral  (proprietary  so1ware)• Development  occurs  behind  walls  • Source  code  is  usually  not  provided  -­‐  kept  locked  up• Corporate  hierarchyThe  Bazaar    (open  source  so1ware)•Code  developed  over  the  Internet  with  several  others  in  public  view•Source  code  open  to  all  users•“Given  enough  eyeballs,  all  bugs  are  shallow”h<p://­‐bazaar/cathedral-­‐bazaar/The Cathedral & The BazaarSunday, June 9, 13
  7. 7. Open Source GovernanceWhat  kind  of  quality  control  is  there?•Most  open  source  projects  have  a  release  manager  or  a  manager  of  some  sort  who  reviews  the  code  and  approves  it  before  adding  it  to  the  final  releaseWhat  is  the  role  of  the  community?•The  community  looks  out  for  the  best  interests  of  the  soSware.    They  work  as  the  governing  body  behind  all  decisions  related  to  the  soSware.  The  community  decides  what  features  to  develop  next  and  who  the  managers  are.      Sunday, June 9, 13
  8. 8. Open Source Community•Open  source  is  about  more  than  free  soHware•Community  is  crucial  to  the  growth  of  open  source•Without  shared  knowledge  and  collabora6on  the  project  will  not  grow•“Cri6quing  the  community  is  a  right  reserved  for  those  who  have  proved  themselves  by  making  valuable  contribu6ons”1•People  who  use  open  source  can  collaborate  and  contribute  in  many  ways  with  the  community1. Tapscott, Don, and Anthony D. Williams. “Embracing open source culture andstrategy.” In Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything, 82-83.Expanded Edition. New York, NY: Penguin USA, 2008.  •Write  code•Write  documenta6on•Debug•Educate  othersSunday, June 9, 13
  9. 9. “Crowdsourcing  has  it  genesis  in  the  open  source  movement  in  soHware.  The  development  of  the  Linux  opera6ng  system  proved  that  a  community  of  like-­‐minded  peers  was  capable  of  crea6ng  a  beVer  product  than  a  corporate  behemoth  like  MicrosoH.    Open  source  revealed  a  fundamental  truth  about  humans  that  had  gone  largely  unno6ced  un6l  the  connec6vely  of  the  Internet  brought  it  into  high  relief:  labor  can  oHen  be  organized  more  efficiently  in  the  context  of  a  community  than  it  can  in  the  context  of  the  corpora6on.    The  best  person  to  do  a  job  is  the  one  who  most  wants  to  do  that  job;  and  the  best  people  to  evaluate  their  performance  are  their  friends  and  peers  who,  by  the  way,  will  enthusias6cally  pitch  in  to  improve  the  final  product,  simply  for  the  sheer  pleasure  of  helping  one  another  and  crea6ng  something  beau6ful  from  which  they  all  will  benefit.”Howe, J. (2008). Crowdsourcing:Why the power of the crowd is drivingthe future of business. NewYork: Crown Business. p.8Open Source CrowdsourcingSunday, June 9, 13
  10. 10. Believing in OpennessIf  you  dont  know  why  you  do  what  you  do  then  how  will  you  ever  get  people  to  be  loyal  and  want  to  be  a  part  of  what  you  do?    The  goal  is  not  just  to  sell  to  people  what  you  have,  its  to  sell  people  on  what  you  believe  -­‐  the  goal  is  not  to  hire  people  who  want  a  job  its  to  hire  people  who  believe  what  you  believe.  If  you  hire  people  just  because  they  can  do  a  job  they  will  work  for  your  money  -­‐  if  you  hire  people  who  believe  what  you  believe  they  work  for  you  with  blood  and  sweat  and  tears.Simon  Sinek:  How  great  leaders  inspire  ac6on  hVp://  Sunday, June 9, 13
  11. 11. Open Source is Easy!“The  hard  drive  on  one  of  our  reference  desk  PCs  died  today.    I  threw  in  a  new  one,  but  I  didnt  feel  like  spending  the  day  si^ng  through  Windows  updates,  so  I  loaded  Ubuntu  11.04  on  it  instead.    The  install,  as  Im  sure  you  know,  only  took  about  15  minutes.    Now,  before  I  add  my  next  point,  keep  in  mind  that  I  manage  a  staff  whose  average  age  is  about  63.    No  joke.    Most  of  them  have  been  working  at  my  facility  longer  than  Ive  been  alive.    S6ll,  once  I  had  Ubuntu  up  and  running,  they  were  literally  figh6ng  over  who  got  to  use  the  new  opera6ng  system.    They  loved  it  that  much.    Now  I  agree,  Linux  kicks  buV.    I  use  it  about  80%  of  the  6me.    Typing  to  you  on  Mint  right  now!    However,  I  never  expected  novice  users  to  take  to  it  so  quickly.    Please,  next  6me  you  do  an  open  source  webinar,  impress  on  your  aVendees  that  libraries  arent  sacrificing  a  thing  by  switching  over  to  open  source  soHware.    If  anything,  open  source  opera6ng  systems  and  applica6ons  can  be  far  more  user  friendly  for  the  novice  user  than  Windows  will  ever  be...”-­‐-­‐  Mark  at  the  The  Rahway  Public  LibrarySunday, June 9, 13
  12. 12. Who’s Using Open Source?•Government  Agencies•All  Kinds  of  Businesses•Schools  (K-­‐colleges)•LibrariansSunday, June 9, 13
  13. 13.  Survey  ResultsOpen Source in BusinessSunday, June 9, 13
  14. 14. • In  2010  a  survey  of  300  large  organiza6ons  in  both  the  private  and  public  sector  found:• 50%  are  fully  commiVed  to  open  source  in  their  business  • 28%  say  they  are  experimen6ng  with  open  source  and  keeping  an  open  mind  to  using  it• 38%  expec6ng  to  migrate  mission-­‐cri6cal  soHware  to  open  source  in  next  12  months• The  cost  was  no  longer  viewed  as  the  key  benefit,  instead:• 76%  cited  quality  as  a  key  benefit  of  open  source• 70%  cited  improved  reliability• 69%  said  beVer  security/bug  fixingh<p:// Source in BusinessSunday, June 9, 13
  15. 15. Total  Ac6ve  Sites:  6/2000  to  7/2012h<p://­‐2012-­‐web-­‐server-­‐survey.html  Open Source On the WebSunday, June 9, 13
  16. 16. •Reliability  through  Peer  Review•Freedom  to  Innovate•No  Vendor  Lock-­‐in•User-­‐centric  Development•Collabora6ve  Environment•Zero  License  FeesWhy so Popular?Sunday, June 9, 13
  17. 17. Why Should LibrariesCare?Sunday, June 9, 13
  18. 18. Libraries  and  Open  Source  Both...• Believe  that  informaIon  should  be  freely  accessible  to  everyone• Give  away  stuff• Benefit  from  the  generosity  of  others• Are  about  communiIes• Make  the  world  a  be<er  place-­‐-­‐  Horton,  G.  h<p:// Source & LibrariesSunday, June 9, 13
  19. 19. Libraries  and  Open  Source  make  the  perfect  pair[Librarians]  "are  almost  ethically  required  to  use  and  develop  open  source  soHware."  Crawford,  R.  S.  h<p:// Source & LibrariesSunday, June 9, 13
  20. 20. • Is  there  support?  Do  I  have  to  know  how  to  program?• Do  I  have  to  skimp  on  features?• Isn’t  Open  Source  risky?• Can  I  do  it  myself?Common  ques6ons  libraries  have:Open Source & LibrariesSunday, June 9, 13
  21. 21. •ByWater  Solu6ons•Equinox•Catalyst•YourLibrarySite•And  more!Is  there  support? Do  I  have  to  know  how  to  program?•If  you  want  to  contribute  to  the  code  -­‐  Yes•If  not  you  can  use:•Support  Providers•Local  Students•Freelance  DevelopersSupport for Open SourceSunday, June 9, 13
  22. 22. • Open  Source  developers  follow  the  rule  of  “Release  early  and  release  oHen”• Users  vote  with  their  dollars  and  6me• Freedom  to  develop  on  your  own• Developers  love  their  productshVp:// I have to skimpon features?Sunday, June 9, 13
  23. 23. • Casey  Coleman,  chief  informa6on  officer  for  the  GSA  (U.S.  General  Services  Administra6on),  said  in  a  speech  ...  that  the  GSA  heavily  relies  on  open  source  to  drive  down  costs,  increase  flexibility  of  IT  dollars,  and  reduce  risk.  ‘You  get  much  more  transparency  and  interoperability,  and  that  reduces  your  risk,’  she  said.• h<p://­‐13505_3-­‐9921115-­‐16.htmlIsn’t Open Source Risky?• US  Department  of  Defense  memo  encourages  the  use  of  open  source  with  many  reasons  “including  cost  advantages,  reduced  risk  of  vendor  lock-­‐in,  beVer  security,  and  increased  flexibility.  It  says  that  the  posi6ve  aspects  of  open  source  soHware  should  be  given  considera6on  during  procurement  research.• h<p://­‐source/news/2009/10/dod-­‐military-­‐needs-­‐to-­‐think-­‐harder-­‐about-­‐using-­‐open-­‐source.ars  Sunday, June 9, 13
  24. 24. For  a  total  284  days  in  2006  (or  more  than  nine  months  out  of  the  year),  exploit  code  for  known,  unpatched  cri6cal  flaws  in  pre-­‐IE7  versions  of  the  browser  was  publicly  available  on  the  Internet.  Likewise,  there  were  at  least  98  days  last  year  in  which  no  soHware  fixes  from  MicrosoH  were  available  to  fix  IE  flaws  that  criminals  were  ac6vely  using  to  steal  personal  and  financial  data  from  users.In  a  total  of  ten  cases  last  year,  instruc6ons  detailing  how  to  leverage  "cri6cal"  vulnerabili6es  in  IE  were  published  online  before  MicrosoH  had  a  patch  to  fix  them.In  contrast,  Internet  Explorers  closest  compe6tor  in  terms  of  market  share  -­‐-­‐  Mozillas  Firefox  browser  -­‐-­‐  experienced  a  single  period  las6ng  just  nine  dayslast  year  in  which  exploit  code  for  a  serious  security  hole  was  posted  online  before  Mozilla  shipped  a  patch  to  remedy  the  problem.h<p://  Isn’t Open Source Risky?Sunday, June 9, 13
  25. 25. Risk of Proprietary Software• “Closed-­‐source  efforts  oHen  suffer  from  flaws  and  problems  which  the  original  development  team  never  an6cipated.    Lack  of  inspec6on  of  the  code  by  other  programmers  can  mean  that  inappropriate  design  constraints  and  other  errors  might  not  be  discovered  un6l  the  code  is  already  in  use.”Pavlicek,  Russell.  Embracing  insanity  :  open  source  soSware  development.  Indianapolis    IN:  SAMS,  2000.  p.  33.Sunday, June 9, 13
  26. 26. Risk of Proprietary Software• “In  its  2011  Coverity  Scan  Open  Source  Integrity  Report,  which  was  released  on  Thursday,  Coverity  actually  found  that  open  source  code  has  fewer  defects  per  thousand  lines  of  code  than  proprietary  soHware  code  does.”Noyes,  Katherine.  “Actually,  Open  Source  Code  Is  Be<er:  Report.”  PCWorld  Business  Center,  February  23,  2012.  h<p://<er_report.html.Sunday, June 9, 13
  27. 27. All  soSware  has  risks,  you  need  to  evaluate  open  source  the  same  way  you  do  proprietary  systems.Several  Levels  of  Risk  to  consider:• SoSware  security  issues• Open  source  is  just  as  secure  if  not  more  secure  than  proprietary  systems  because  of  its  transparency• Evaluate  open  source  soSware  no  differently  than  you  do  other  soSware!• Company  mergers  and  acquisiIons• Because  you  own  the  code  to  your  system  you  are  not  Ied  to  one  support  source  and  will  never  be  leS  without  support  Software is Risky!Sunday, June 9, 13
  28. 28. •Absolutely,  with  the  right  in-­‐house  skills•Systems  knowledge•Linux  server  management•Web  programming•Perl  /  PHP  /  MySQLCan I do it Myself?Sunday, June 9, 13
  29. 29. Now What?Sunday, June 9, 13
  30. 30. Finding OpenSource Software• FOSS4Lib  lists  open  source  applica6ons  for  libraries  (including  integrated  library  systems)  along  with  links  to  documenta6on  and  where  to  download  the  soHware• hVp://  Sunday, June 9, 13
  31. 31. Open Source ILS• Evergreen  (h<p://open-­‐  • Desktop  client  +  Web  based  OPAC• Started  by  the  Georgia  Public  Library  System  in  2006  to  serve  as  the  shared  system  for  the  state• Koha  (h<p://koha-­‐  • Web  based  staff  client  and  OPAC• Developed  in  1999  by  the  Horowhenua  Library  Trust  in  New  Zealand  to  replace  a  system  that  was  about  to  suffer  from  Y2KSunday, June 9, 13
  32. 32. Both have:•  Cataloging•  CirculaIon•  Patron  Management•  AcquisiIons•  Serials• ReporIngSunday, June 9, 13
  33. 33. Both are:• Open  source  and  freely  available  for  download  and  use• Supported  by  mulIple  companies• Run  by  libraries  who  pay  for  support  and/or  go  it  aloneSunday, June 9, 13
  34. 34. How Do I Choose?Sunday, June 9, 13
  35. 35. Research!• Librarians  need  to  take  their  LIS  skills  and  apply  them  to  soHware  evalua6on• Research  the  soHware:• Search  on  Lib-­‐Web-­‐Cats  to  see  who  in  your  field/geographical  loca6on  is  using  what  and  talk  to  them•  • Demo  the  soHware!  Don’t  just  let  a  vendor  show  it  to  you  -­‐  actually  use  it  yourself• Evergreen:  • Koha:  koha-­‐  Sunday, June 9, 13
  36. 36. Compare• Compare  the  soHware  side  by  side• Create  your  own  features/pros  &  cons  list  -­‐  do  not  depend  on  those  created  by  others  (but  don’t  discount  documenta6on  from  both  projects)• Take  in  to  considera6on  your  own  preferences  -­‐  it’s  not  all  about  features  -­‐  you  have  to  live  with  this  soHware  every  daySunday, June 9, 13
  37. 37. Talk• Talk  to  your  trusted  network• Talk  to  others  using  the  soHware• Talk  to  strangers  and  friends  alike  on  social  networks  to  see  what  they  like/don’t  like• Talk  to  the  community  behind  the  soHwareSunday, June 9, 13
  38. 38. Paid Support orLocal SupportSunday, June 9, 13
  39. 39. Research!• Bears  repea6ng  ...  you  need  to  do  your  research• Talk  to  you  network• Talk  to  support  companies• Talk  to  your  local  systems  staff• Talk  to  those  who  have  done  it  before  (mailing  lists  and  IRC  are  great  tools)Sunday, June 9, 13
  40. 40. Paid Support• No  Vendor  Lock  In!  • Call  in  mul6ple  support  companies  for  each  system  you’re  considering  -­‐  just  like  if  you  were  considering    a  proprietary  ILS• Talk  to  your  peers  and  use  online  research  like  the  annual  percep6ons  survey  •  Sunday, June 9, 13
  41. 41. Paid Support• Do  they  offer:• Migra6on  support  /  Full  migra6on  services• Training  (onsite  or  webinar)• Phone,  Email  and/or  chat  support• Development  of  new  features  if  necessary/desiredSunday, June 9, 13
  42. 42. Local Support• Do  you  have  an  available  server?• Does  your  IT  staff  know  how  to  handle  the  necessary  opera6ng  system  (Linux)?• Do  you  have  the  infrastructure  to  maintain  backups?• Does  your  staff  have  the  6me  to  maintain  the  system?Sunday, June 9, 13
  43. 43. Local Support• Can  your  librarians  and  systems  folks  handle  the  migraIon?• Will  you  need  outside  training?• Does  your  IT  staff  (or  insItuIon)  have  access  to  a  systems  librarian?• Are  you  going  to  want  new  features?  Do  you  have  a  developer  on  staff?Sunday, June 9, 13
  44. 44. Local SystemRequirements• Both  will  need:• A  Linux  server  with  Perl  installed• Evergreen  uses  PostgreSQL  as  the  database• Koha  uses  MySQL  as  the  database• Both  will  need  several  Perl  Modules  installedSunday, June 9, 13
  45. 45. What Else is Out There?Sunday, June 9, 13
  46. 46. OPAC• VuFind• hVp://  • Blacklight• hVp://• SOPAC• hVp://  Sunday, June 9, 13
  47. 47. Digital Library/Exhibits• Omeka• Professional-­‐looking  exhibit  sites  that  showcase  collecIons• Dublin  Core  metadata  structure• MulIple  themes• Plug-­‐ins  for  geolocaIon  and  bi-­‐lingual  sites• Tagging  /  Blogging  /  RSS  feedshttp://omeka.orghttp://nycdigital.orgSunday, June 9, 13
  48. 48. Research Assistant• Zotero  • Firefox  plugin  or  standalone• Helps  you  collect,  manage,  &  cite  research  resources• Includes  saved  searches  and  tags• Integra6on  with  MS  Office  &  LibreOffice• Can  store  of  files  and  bibliography  online  as  well• Allows  for  shared  collec6onshttp://zotero.orgSunday, June 9, 13
  49. 49. Institutional Repository• DSpace• Store  research  papers  and  presentaIons  for  your  organizaIon• Captures  your  data  in  text,  video,  audio  and  data• Searchable• Widely  used  in  the  academic  worldhttp://dspace.orgSunday, June 9, 13
  50. 50. Web Analytics• PiWik• Keep  staIsIcs  for  your  websites  (an  open  source  alternaIve  to  Google  AnalyIcs)• Download  and  install  on  your  own  web  server  behind  your  firewall• Customizable  interfacehttp://piwik.orgSunday, June 9, 13
  51. 51. Surveys• LimeSurvey• Install  on  your  own  servers• Free  with  no  limits  on  number  of  surveys  or  responses• MulI-­‐Lingual  Surveys  in  more  than  50  languages• CreaIon  of  a  printable  survey  versionhttp://limesurvey.orgSunday, June 9, 13
  52. 52. More to LearnSunday, June 9, 13
  53. 53. Additional Links•Open Source Living•OSS Watch, open source software advisory service:•Open Source as Alternative•Nicole’s Delicious bookmarks:, June 9, 13
  54. 54. OSS & Libraries Links• Open  Source  SoHware  in  LibrarieshVp://  • Open  Source  SoHware  and  Libraries  •Prac6cal  Open  Source  SoHware  for  LibrarieshVp://• Open  Network  Libraries  hVp://  • FOSS4LibhVp://  Sunday, June 9, 13
  55. 55. Open Source Blogs• The  Open  RoadhVp://• Open  Ended  from  Ars  TechnicahVp://­‐source• The  H  Open  SourcehVp://www.h-­‐  • ZDNet  Open  SourcehVp://­‐source• New  York  Times  -­‐  OpenhVp://  • OpenSource.comhVp://  • Open  Source  at  Sunday, June 9, 13
  56. 56. Online Reading List• Open  Source:  Narrowing  the  Divides  between  Educa6on,  Business,  and  CommunityhVp://• The  concepts  of  Free  SoHware  &  Open  Standards:  Introduc6on  to  Free  SoHware  hVp://    • We  Love  Open  Source  SoHware.  No,  You  Can’t  Have  Our  CodehVp://  • Open  Source  SoHware  Tools  And  Directories:  Where  To  Find  Them,  How  To  Evaluate  ThemhVp://­‐source-­‐soHware-­‐tools-­‐and-­‐directories-­‐where-­‐to-­‐find-­‐them-­‐how-­‐to-­‐evaluate-­‐them/• Open  Source  Security  BibliographyhVp://  • Nicole’s  Zotero  LibraryhVp://, June 9, 13
  57. 57. Print Reading List• Prac?cal  Open  Source  SoAware  in  Libraries  by  Nicole  C.  Engard  • The  Cathedral  and  the  Bazaar:  Musings  on  Linux  and  Open  Source  by  an  Accidental  Revolu?onary  by  Eric  S.  Raymond• Embracing  Insanity:  Open  Source  SoAware  Development  by  Russell  Pavlicek• The  success  of  open  source  by  Steve  Weber• The  open  source  alterna?ve:  Understanding  risks  and  leveraging  opportuni?es  by  Heather  J.  Meeker• Open  Sources  2.0:  The  Con?nuing  Evolu?on  by  Chris  DiBona,  Mark  Stone,  and  Danese  CooperSunday, June 9, 13
  58. 58. Thank You!Nicole C. EngardVice President of Education, ByWater SolutionsAuthor, Practical Open Source Software forLibrariesopensource.web2learning.netnengard@bywatersolutions.comSunday, June 9, 13