Open Source Software for Libraries


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Open Source Software for Libraries

  1. 1. Open  Source  for  Libraries Nicole C. Engard Director of Open Source Education ByWater Solutions nengard@bywatersolutions.comTuesday, January 18, 2011
  2. 2. Outline • What  is  Open  Source? • Products  for  your  Library • Q&A  ThroughoutTuesday, January 18, 2011
  3. 3. What  isn’t  Open  Source? Common Open Source FUD (Fear, Uncertainty & Doubt) •“Isn’t that insecure?” •“I don’t want to share my data!” •“How can it be any good if it’s free?” •“We don’t have the staff to handle open source.” •“We’ve never had success with homegrown systems.” Comic: Author: Unknown | Year: Unknown | Source: UnknownTuesday, January 18, 2011
  4. 4. What  is  Open  Source? Open source software is software that users have the ability to run, distribute, study and modify for any purpose. Open source is a collaborative software- development method that harnesses the power of peer review and transparency of process to develop code that is freely accessible.1 Open source draws on an ecosystem of thousands of developers and customers all over the world to drive innovation.2 1,2, January 18, 2011
  5. 5. Open  Source  is  not  New "Anyone  who  hears  this,  if  he  can  sing,  may  add  and  change  at   pleasure.  Let  it  go  from  hand  to  hand:  let  those  who  request  it   have  it.  As  a  ball  among  young  women,  catch  it  if  you  can. Since  this  is  of  Good  Love,  lend  it  out  gladly:  do  not  make  a   mockery  of  its  name  by  keeping  it  in  reserve;  nor  exchange  it  for   money  by  selling  or  renLng  it;  for  Good  Love  when  bought,   loses  its  charm." Juan  Ruiz,  Archpriest  of  Hita.  The  Book  of  Good  Love  (14th   century,  original  in  Ancient  Spanish), January 18, 2011
  6. 6. What  is  Free  So:ware? • Often you will hear Free & Open Source Software (F/OSS) in conjunction. • The Free Software Definition (http:// is similar to, but not identical to the Open Source Definition (http:// definition.php) • Free does not mean free of cost - it means Free as in FreedomTuesday, January 18, 2011
  7. 7. Four  Freedoms  of  Free  So:ware • You  need  all  four  of  these  freedoms  to  have   free  soWware   • Freedom  of  use • Freedom  to  copy • Freedom  to  modify • Freedom  to  contribute, January 18, 2011
  8. 8. Sharing  of  ideas "If  you  have  an  apple  and  I  have  an  apple  and   we  exchange  apples,  then  you  and  I  will  sLll   each  have  one  apple.  But  if  you  have  an  idea   and  I  have  an  idea  and  we  exchange  these   ideas,  then  each  of  us  will  have  two  ideas." AZributed  to  Bernard  Shaw, January 18, 2011
  9. 9. The  Cathedral  &  The  Bazaar The Cathedral The Bazaar (proprietary software) (open source software) •Development •“Given enough occurs behind eyeballs, all bugs walls are shallow” •Source code is •Code developed usually not over the Internet provided - kept with several locked up others in public •Corporate view hierarchy •Source code open to all users, January 18, 2011
  10. 10. Open  Source  Governance What kind of quality control is there? •Most open source projects have a release manager or a manager of some sort who reviews the code and approves it before adding it to the final release What is the roll of the community? •The community looks out for the best interests of the software. They work as the governing body behind all decisions related to the software. The community decides what features to develop next and who the managers are.Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  11. 11. Open  Source  Community •Open source is about more than free software •Community is crucial to the growth of open source •Without shared knowledge and collaboration the project will not grow •“Critiquing the community is a right reserved for those who have proved themselves by making valuable contributions”1 •People who use open source can collaborate and contribute in many ways with the community •Write code •Write documentation •Debug •Educate others 1. Tapscott, Don, and Anthony D. Williams. “Embracing open source culture and strategy.” In Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything, 82-83. Expanded Edition. New York, NY: Penguin USA, 2008.  Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  12. 12. Open  Source  Crowdsourcing “Crowdsourcing has it genesis in the open source movement in software. The development of the Linux operating system proved that a community of like-minded peers was capable of creating a better product than a corporate behemoth like Microsoft. Open source revealed a fundamental truth about humans that had gone largely unnoticed until the connectively of the Internet brought it into high relief: labor can often be organized more efficiently in the context of a community than it can in the context of the corporation. The best person to do a job is the one who most wants to do that job; and the best people to evaluate their performance are their friends and peers who, by the way, will enthusiastically pitch in to improve the final product, simply for the sheer pleasure of helping one another and creating something beautiful from which they all will benefit.” Howe, J. (2008). Crowdsourcing: Why the power of the crowd is driving the future of business. New York: Crown Business. p.8Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  13. 13. Who’s  Using  Open  Source? •Government Agencies •All Kinds of Businesses •Schools (K-colleges) •LibrariansTuesday, January 18, 2011
  14. 14. Open  Source  in  Business 2007 Survey Results, January 18, 2011
  15. 15. Open  Source  in  Business • In  2010  a  survey  of  300  large  organizaLons  in  both  the  private  and  public   sector  found: • 50%  are  fully  commiZed  to  open  source  in  their  business   • 28%  say  they  are  experimenLng  with  open  source  and  keeping  an  open   mind  to  using  it • 38%  expecLng  to  migrate  mission-­‐criLcal  soWware  to  open  source  in  next   12  months • The  cost  was  no  longer  viewed  as  the  key  benefit,  instead: • 76%  cited  quality  as  a  key  benefit  of  open  source • 70%  cited  improved  reliability • 69%  said  beZer  security/bug  fixing, January 18, 2011
  16. 16. Making  money  on  open  source • “IBM  not  only  accepted  open  source  soWware  products   and  processes  but  also  its  philosophy,  which  is  to  spur   quality  and  fast  growth  rather  than  just  profits  based  on   proprietary  ownership  of  intellectual  property.” • “Giving  up  so  much  control  is  unconvenLonal  to  say  the   least,  but  the  rewards  for  doing  so  have  been  handsome.     IBM  spends  about  $100  million  per  year  on  Linux   development.    If  the  Linux  community  puts  in  $1  billion  of   effort,  and  even  half  of  that  is  useful  to  IBM  customers,   the  company  gets  $500  million  of  soWware  development   for  an  investment  of  $100  million.” Tapscott, Don, and Anthony D. Williams. “Joining Linux.” In Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything, 79-82. Expanded Edition. New York, NY: Penguin USA, 2008., January 18, 2011
  17. 17. Open  Source  on  the  Web Total Active Servers: 10/2000 to 1/2011, January 18, 2011
  18. 18. Why  so  popular? • Reliability through Peer Review • Freedom to Innovate • No Vendor Lock-in • User-centric Development • Collaborative Environment • Zero License FeesTuesday, January 18, 2011
  19. 19. Why  Should  Libraries  Care?Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  20. 20. Open  Source  &  Libraries Libraries and Open Source Both... • Believe that information should be freely accessible to everyone • Give away stuff • Benefit from the generosity of others • Are about communities • Make the world a better place -- Horton, G., January 18, 2011
  21. 21. Open  Source  &  Libraries Libraries and Open Source make the perfect pair [Librarians] "are almost ethically required to use and develop open source software." Crawford, R. S. oss4lib.pdfTuesday, January 18, 2011
  22. 22. Open  Source  &  Libraries Libraries and Open Source make the perfect pair “Libraries are committed to the notion of the ʻcommons.ʼ Libraries are in fact one of the last best hopes for the preservation of the intellectual commons. That value system should extend to the intellectual work we do on our access systems. We should reclaim the domain of library technology from the commercial and proprietary realms and actualize is as part of our vision of the commons. ... We are also congenital collaborators. Can you think of any other group of institutions that share their stuff the way we do through ILL? -- Lucia, J., January 18, 2011
  23. 23. Open  Source  Concerns 2007 Survey Results, January 18, 2011
  24. 24. Open  Source  &  Libraries Common questions libraries have: • Is there support? Do I have to know how to program? • Do I have to skimp on features? • Isn’t Open Source risky? • Can I do it myself?Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  25. 25. Support  for  Open  Source Is there support? Do I have to know how to program? • ByWater Solutions • BibLibre • Local Students • Equinox • Freelance Developers • YourLibrarySite • And more!Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  26. 26. Do  I  have  to  skimp  on  features? • Open Source developers follow the rule of “Release early and release often” • Users vote with their dollars and time • Freedom to develop on your own • Developers love their productsTuesday, January 18, 2011
  27. 27. Isn’t  Open  Source  Risky? • US Department of Defense memo encourages the use of open source • Casey Coleman, chief information with many reasons “including cost officer for the GSA (U.S. General advantages, reduced risk of vendor Services Administration), said in a lock-in, better security, and increased speech ... that the GSA heavily relies flexibility. It says that the positive on open source to drive down costs, aspects of open source software increase flexibility of IT dollars, and should be given consideration during reduce risk. ʻYou get much more procurement research. transparency and interoperability, and that reduces your risk,ʼ she said. • 2009/10/dod-military-needs-to-think-harder- • about-using-open-source.ars 8301-13505_3-9921115-16.htmlTuesday, January 18, 2011
  28. 28. Isn’t  Open  Source  Risky? For a total 284 days in 2006 (or more than nine months out of the year), exploit code for known, unpatched critical flaws in pre-IE7 versions of the browser was publicly available on the Internet. Likewise, there were at least 98 days last year in which no software fixes from Microsoft were available to fix IE flaws that criminals were actively using to steal personal and financial data from users. In a total of ten cases last year, instructions detailing how to leverage "critical" vulnerabilities in IE were published online before Microsoft had a patch to fix them. In contrast, Internet Explorers closest competitor in terms of market share -- Mozillas Firefox browser -- experienced a single period lasting just nine days last year in which exploit code for a serious security hole was posted online before Mozilla shipped a patch to remedy the problem. Quote: internet_explorer_unsafe_for_2.htmlTuesday, January 18, 2011
  29. 29. Risk  of  Proprietary  So:ware • “Closed-­‐source  efforts  oWen  suffer  from  flaws   and  problems  which  the  original  development   team  never  anLcipated.    Lack  of  inspecLon  of   the  code  by  other  programmers  can  mean  that   inappropriate  design  constraints  and  other   errors  might  not  be  discovered  unLl  the  code  is   already  in  use.” Pavlicek, Russell. Embracing insanity : open source software development. Indianapolis IN: SAMS, 2000. p. 33.Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  30. 30. So:ware  is  Risky! All software has risks, you need to evaluate open source the same way you do proprietary systems. Several Levels of Risk to consider: • Software security issues • Open source is just as secure if not more secure than proprietary systems because of its transparency • Evaluate open source software no differently than you do other software! • Company mergers and acquisitions • Because you own the code to your system you are not tied to one support source and will never be left without supportTuesday, January 18, 2011
  31. 31. Can  I  do  it  myself? • Absolutely, with the right in-house skills • Linux server management • Web programming • Perl / PHP / MySQL • Systems knowledgeTuesday, January 18, 2011
  32. 32. Some  NumbersTuesday, January 18, 2011
  33. 33. Open  Source  &  Libraries When asked what Open Source apps they use at work, 977 librarians and library workers answered as follows, January 18, 2011
  34. 34. Open  Source  &  Libraries When asked why they chose and open source app,977 librarians and library workers answered as follows, January 18, 2011
  35. 35. Now  What?Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  36. 36. Play  Time • Start downloading and installing applications that will make things more efficient (and possibly 3253133986/ affordable) for you.Tuesday, January 18, 2011
  37. 37. Portable  Play •Can’t install software on your work computer? •Try PortableApps: •Install on your USB drive and use many of these open source applications without installing to the hard drive http://portableapps.comTuesday, January 18, 2011
  38. 38. Local  Play •Don’t have access to a web server? •Try BitNami: •Free, easy to setup wikis, blogs, forums and many other web applications that you can run locally or in the cloud. BitNami makes deploying server software a simple and enjoyable process., January 18, 2011
  39. 39. Non-­‐Profit  in  a  Box • NGO-in-a-Box offers open source ‘boxes’ to non profits • Each box comes with applications and manuals to help you perform your daily tasks with open source • Choose from : • The BaseBox - a collection of tools for the day to day running of small to medium sized NGOs • The Security Version • The Audio and Video Edition • The Open Publishing Edition http://ngoinabox.orgTuesday, January 18, 2011
  40. 40. AddiRonal  Links •Top 50 Programs that Drive You Crazy & their OS Alternatives: •OSS Watch, open source software advisory service: •Open Source as Alternative •Nicole’s Delicious bookmarks: •Open Source Living http://osliving.comTuesday, January 18, 2011
  41. 41. OSS  &  Libraries  Links •Open Source Software in Libraries •Open Source Software and Libraries Bibliography freelibre_and_open_source_software_and_libraries_bibliography •Open Network Libraries •Practical Open Source Software for Libraries, January 18, 2011
  42. 42. Open  Source  Blogs •The Open Road •ZDNet Open Source openroad/ source •Open Ended from Ars Technica •New York Times - Open source • •The H Open Source, January 18, 2011
  43. 43. Online  Reading  List • Open Source: Narrowing the Divides between Education, Business, and Community • The concepts of Free Software & Open Standards: Introduction to Free Software • A Primer on Risk • Nicole’s Zotero Library • We Love Open Source Software. No, You Can’t Have Our Code, January 18, 2011
  44. 44. Print  Reading  List • Practical Open Source Software in Libraries by Nicole C. Engard • The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary by Eric S. Raymond • Embracing Insanity: Open Source Software Development by Russell Pavlicek • The success of open source by Steve Weber • The open source alternative: Understanding risks and leveraging opportunities by Heather J. Meeker • Open Sources 2.0: The Continuing Evolution by Chris DiBona, Mark Stone, and Danese CooperTuesday, January 18, 2011
  45. 45. Thank  You! Nicole C. Engard The Book: opensource.web2learning.netTuesday, January 18, 2011