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Open Source for Libraries


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Open Source for Libraries

  1. 1. Open Source for Libraries Nicole C. Engard Vice President of Education ByWater Solutions nengard@bywatersolutions.comThursday, January 19, 12
  2. 2. Outline • What  is  Open  Source? • Products  for  your  Library • Q&A  ThroughoutThursday, January 19, 12
  3. 3. What isn’t Open Source? Common  Open  Source  FUD  (Fear,  Uncertainty  &  Doubt) • “Isn’t  that  insecure?” • “I  don’t  want  to  share  my  data!” • “How  can  it  be  any  good  if  it’s  free?” • “We  don’t  have  the  staff  to  handle   open  source.” Comic: Author: Unknown | Year: Unknown | Source: UnknownThursday, January 19, 12
  4. 4. What is Open Source? Open  source  soLware  is  soLware  that  users  have  the  ability  to   run,  distribute,  study  and  modify  for  any  purpose. Open  source  is  a  collaboraMve  soLware-­‐development   method  that  harnesses  the  power  of  peer  review  and   transparency  of  process  to  develop  code  that  is  freely   accessible.1   Open  source  draws  on  an  ecosystem  of  thousands  of   developers  and  customers  all  over  the  world  to  drive   innovaMon.2                                                 1,2  hQp://, January 19, 12
  5. 5. What is Free Software? • OLen  you  will  hear  Free  &  Open  Source   SoLware  (F/OSS)  in  conjuncMon.   • The  Free  SoLware  DefiniMon   (hQp://­‐sw.html)     is  similar  to,  but  not  idenMcal  to  the  Open   Source  DefiniMon  (hQp:// definiMon.php)   • Free  does  not  mean  free  of  cost  -­‐  it   means  Free  as  in  FreedomThursday, January 19, 12
  6. 6. 4 Freedoms of Free Software • You  need  all  four  of  these  freedoms  to  have  free   soLware   • Freedom  of  use • Freedom  to  copy • Freedom  to  modify • Freedom  to  contribute hQp://, January 19, 12
  7. 7. Sharing of ideas "If  you  have  an  apple  and  I  have  an  apple  and   we  exchange  apples,  then  you  and  I  will  sMll   each  have  one  apple.  But  if  you  have  an  idea   and  I  have  an  idea  and  we  exchange  these   ideas,  then  each  of  us  will  have  two  ideas." AQributed  to  Bernard  Shaw, January 19, 12
  8. 8. The Cathedral & The Bazaar The  Cathedral   The  Bazaar     (proprietary  soAware) (open  source  soAware) • Development  occurs   • Code  developed  over   behind  walls   the  Internet  with   • Source  code  is   several  others  in   usually  not  provided   public  view -­‐  kept  locked  up • Source  code  open  to   • Corporate  hierarchy all  users • “Given  enough  hQp://­‐bazaar/cathedral-­‐bazaar/ eyeballs,  all  bugs  are   shallow”Thursday, January 19, 12
  9. 9. Open Source Governance What kind of quality control is there? •Most open source projects have a release manager or a manager of some sort who reviews the code and approves it before adding it to the final release What is the role of the community? •The community looks out for the best interests of the software. They work as the governing body behind all decisions related to the software. The community decides what features to develop next and who the managers are.Thursday, January 19, 12
  10. 10. Open Source Community • Open  source  is  about  more  than  free  soLware • Community  is  crucial  to  the  growth  of  open  source • Without  shared  knowledge  and  collaboraMon  the  project  will  not   grow • “CriMquing  the  community  is  a  right  reserved  for  those  who  have   proved  themselves  by  making  valuable  contribuMons”1 • People  who  use  open  source  can  collaborate  and  contribute  in  many   ways  with  the  community • Write  code • Write  documentaMon • Debug • Educate  others 1. Tapscott, Don, and Anthony D. Williams. “Embracing open source culture and strategy.” In Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changes everything, 82-83. Expanded Edition. New York, NY: Penguin USA, 2008.  Thursday, January 19, 12
  11. 11. Open Source Crowdsourcing “Crowdsourcing  has  it  genesis  in  the  open  source  movement  in   soLware.  The  development  of  the  Linux  operaMng  system  proved  that   a  community  of  like-­‐minded  peers  was  capable  of  creaMng  a  beQer   product  than  a  corporate  behemoth  like  MicrosoL.    Open  source   revealed  a  fundamental  truth  about  humans  that  had  gone  largely   unnoMced  unMl  the  connecMvely  of  the  Internet  brought  it  into  high   relief:  labor  can  oLen  be  organized  more  efficiently  in  the  context  of   a  community  than  it  can  in  the  context  of  the  corporaMon.    The  best   person  to  do  a  job  is  the  one  who  most  wants  to  do  that  job;  and  the   best  people  to  evaluate  their  performance  are  their  friends  and  peers   who,  by  the  way,  will  enthusiasMcally  pitch  in  to  improve  the  final   product,  simply  for  the  sheer  pleasure  of  helping  one  another  and   creaMng  something  beauMful  from  which  they  all  will  benefit.” Howe, J. (2008). Crowdsourcing: Why the power of the crowd is driving the future of business. New York: Crown Business. p.8Thursday, January 19, 12
  12. 12. Who’s Using Open Source? •Government  Agencies •Schools  (K-­‐colleges) •All  Kinds  of  Businesses •LibrariansThursday, January 19, 12
  13. 13. Open Source in Business 2007  Survey  Results, January 19, 12
  14. 14. Open Source in Business • In  2010  a  survey  of  300  large  organizaMons  in  both  the  private  and  public   sector  found: • 50%  are  fully  commiQed  to  open  source  in  their  business   • 28%  say  they  are  experimenMng  with  open  source  and  keeping  an  open   mind  to  using  it • 38%  expecMng  to  migrate  mission-­‐criMcal  soLware  to  open  source  in  next   12  months • The  cost  was  no  longer  viewed  as  the  key  benefit,  instead: • 76%  cited  quality  as  a  key  benefit  of  open  source • 70%  cited  improved  reliability • 69%  said  beQer  security/bug  fixing hQp:// arMcle_display.cfm?arMcle_id=5045Thursday, January 19, 12
  15. 15. Making money on open source • “IBM  not  only  accepted  open  source  soLware  products  and  processes  but  also   its  philosophy,  which  is  to  spur  quality  and  fast  growth  rather  than  just  profits   based  on  proprietary  ownership  of  intellectual  property.” • “Giving  up  so  much  control  is  unconvenMonal  to  say  the  least,  but  the  rewards   for  doing  so  have  been  handsome.    IBM  spends  about  $100  million  per  year   on  Linux  development.    If  the  Linux  community  puts  in  $1  billion  of  effort,  and   even  half  of  that  is  useful  to  IBM  customers,  the  company  gets  $500  million  of   soLware  development  for  an  investment  of  $100  million.” TapscoQ,  Don,  and  Anthony  D.  Williams.  “Joining  Linux.”  In   Wikinomics:  How  mass  collaboraMon  changes  everything,   79-­‐82.  Expanded  EdiMon.  New  York,  NY:  Penguin  USA,  2008.   hQp://, January 19, 12
  16. 16. Open Source On the Web Total  AcMve  Sites:  6/2000  to  1/2012 hQp://­‐2012-­‐web-­‐server-­‐survey.html  Thursday, January 19, 12
  17. 17. Why so Popular? •Reliability  through  Peer  Review •Freedom  to  Innovate •No  Vendor  Lock-­‐in •User-­‐centric  Development •CollaboraMve  Environment •Zero  License  FeesThursday, January 19, 12
  18. 18. Why Should Libraries Care?Thursday, January 19, 12
  19. 19. Open Source & Libraries Libraries  and  Open  Source  Both... • Believe  that  informaMon  should  be  freely  accessible  to  everyone • Give  away  stuff • Benefit  from  the  generosity  of  others • Are  about  communiMes • Make  the  world  a  beQer  place -­‐-­‐  Horton,  G.  hQp://, January 19, 12
  20. 20. Open Source & Libraries Libraries  and  Open  Source  make   the  perfect  pair [Librarians]  "are  almost  ethically   required  to  use  and  develop  open   source  soLware."   Crawford,  R.  S.  hQp:// presentaMons/oss4lib.pdf hQp:// 151687944/Thursday, January 19, 12
  21. 21. Open Source & Libraries Libraries  and  Open  Source  make  the  perfect  pair “Libraries  are  commiQed  to  the  noMon  of  the  ‘commons.’  Libraries  are  in   fact  one  of  the  last  best  hopes  for  the  preservaMon  of  the  intellectual   commons.  That  value  system  should  extend  to  the  intellectual  work  we   do  on  our  access  systems.  We  should  reclaim  the  domain  of  library   technology  from  the  commercial  and  proprietary  realms  and  actualize  is   as  part  of  our  vision  of  the  commons.   ... We  are  also  congenital  collaborators.  Can  you  think  of  any  other  group  of   insMtuMons  that  share  their  stuff  the  way  we  do  through  ILL?                                 -­‐-­‐  Lucia,  J.Thursday, January 19, 12
  22. 22. Open Source & Libraries 2007  Survey  Results hQp://  Thursday, January 19, 12
  23. 23. Open Source & Libraries Common  quesMons  libraries  have: • Is  there  support?  Do  I  have  to  know   how  to  program? • Do  I  have  to  skimp  on  features? • Isn’t  Open  Source  risky? • Can  I  do  it  myself?Thursday, January 19, 12
  24. 24. Support for Open Source Is  there  support? Do  I  have  to  know  how  to  program? • ByWater  SoluMons • Local  Students • BibLibre • Freelance  Developers • Equinox • YourLibrarySite • And  more!Thursday, January 19, 12
  25. 25. Do I have to skimp on features? • Open  Source  developers  follow  the   rule  of  “Release  early  and  release   oLen” • Users  vote  with  their  dollars  and  Mme • Freedom  to  develop  on  your  own • Developers  love  their  products hQp:// 2505184887/Thursday, January 19, 12
  26. 26. Isn’t Open Source Risky? • Casey  Coleman,  chief  informaMon  officer  for  the   • US  Department  of  Defense  memo   encourages  the  use  of  open  source  with   GSA  (U.S.  General  Services  AdministraMon),  said   many  reasons  “including  cost  advantages,   in  a  speech  ...  that  the  GSA  heavily  relies  on   reduced  risk  of  vendor  lock-­‐in,  beQer   open  source  to  drive  down  costs,  increase   security,  and  increased  flexibility.  It  says   flexibility  of  IT  dollars,  and  reduce  risk.  ‘You  get   that  the  posiMve  aspects  of  open  source   much  more  transparency  and  interoperability,   soLware  should  be  given  consideraMon   and  that  reduces  your  risk,’  she  said. during  procurement  research. • hQp:// 8301-­‐13505_3-­‐9921115-­‐16.html • hQp://­‐source/news/ 2009/10/dod-­‐military-­‐needs-­‐to-­‐think-­‐harder-­‐ about-­‐using-­‐open-­‐source.ars  Thursday, January 19, 12
  27. 27. Isn’t Open Source Risky? For  a  total  284  days  in  2006  (or  more  than  nine  months  out  of  the  year),  exploit  code  for  known,   unpatched  criMcal  flaws  in  pre-­‐IE7  versions  of  the  browser  was  publicly  available  on  the  Internet.   Likewise,  there  were  at  least  98  days  last  year  in  which  no  soLware  fixes  from  MicrosoL  were   available  to  fix  IE  flaws  that  criminals  were  acMvely  using  to  steal  personal  and  financial  data  from   users. In  a  total  of  ten  cases  last  year,  instrucMons  detailing  how  to  leverage  "criMcal"  vulnerabiliMes  in  IE   were  published  online  before  MicrosoL  had  a  patch  to  fix  them. In  contrast,  Internet  Explorers  closest  compeMtor  in  terms  of  market  share  -­‐-­‐  Mozillas  Firefox   browser  -­‐-­‐  experienced  a  single  period  lasMng  just  nine  days last  year  in  which  exploit  code  for  a  serious  security  hole  was  posted   online  before  Mozilla  shipped  a  patch  to  remedy  the  problem. hQp:// internet_explorer_unsafe_for_2.html  Thursday, January 19, 12
  28. 28. Risk of Proprietary Software • “Closed-­‐source  efforts  oLen  suffer  from  flaws   and  problems  which  the  original  development   team  never  anMcipated.    Lack  of  inspecMon  of   the  code  by  other  programmers  can  mean  that   inappropriate  design  constraints  and  other   errors  might  not  be  discovered  unMl  the  code  is   already  in  use.” Pavlicek,  Russell.  Embracing   insanity  :  open  source  soLware   development.  Indianapolis    IN:   SAMS,  2000.  p.  33.Thursday, January 19, 12
  29. 29. Software is Risky! All  soLware  has  risks,  you  need  to  evaluate  open  source  the  same  way  you  do   proprietary  systems. Several  Levels  of  Risk  to  consider: • SoLware  security  issues • Open  source  is  just  as  secure  if  not  more  secure  than  proprietary  systems   because  of  its  transparency • Evaluate  open  source  soLware  no  differently  than  you  do  other  soLware! • Company  mergers  and  acquisiMons • Because  you  own  the  code  to  your  system  you  are  not  Med  to  one  support   source  and  will  never  be  leL  without  support  Thursday, January 19, 12
  30. 30. Can I do it Myself? • Absolutely,  with  the  right  in-­‐house  skills • Linux  server  management • Web  programming • Perl  /  PHP  /  MySQL • Systems  knowledgeThursday, January 19, 12
  31. 31. Some NumbersThursday, January 19, 12
  32. 32. Open Source & Libraries When  asked  what  Open  Source  apps  they  use  at  work,  977   librarians  and  library  workers  answered  as  follows hQp://­‐ resultsThursday, January 19, 12
  33. 33. Open Source & Libraries When  asked  why  they  chose  and  open  source  app,  977   librarians  and  library  workers  answered  as  follows hQp://­‐ resultsThursday, January 19, 12
  34. 34. Now What?Thursday, January 19, 12
  35. 35. Play Time • Start  downloading  and   installing  applicaMons   that  will  make  things   more  efficient  (and   possibly  affordable)  for   you. hQp:// 3253133986/Thursday, January 19, 12
  36. 36. Portable Play•Can’t  install  soLware  on  your  work   computer? •Try  PortableApps: •Install  on  your  USB  drive  and  use   many  of  these  open  source   applicaMons  without  installing  to  the   hard  drive hQp://  Thursday, January 19, 12
  37. 37. Local Play • Don’t  have  access  to  a  web  server? • Try  BitNami: • Free,  easy  to  setup  wikis,  blogs,   forums  and  many  other  web   applicaMons  that  you  can  run   locally  or  in  the  cloud.  BitNami   makes  deploying  server  soLware  a   simple  and  enjoyable  process. hQp://, January 19, 12
  38. 38. Additional Links •Open Source Living •OSS Watch, open source software advisory service: •Open Source as Alternative •Nicole’s Delicious bookmarks:, January 19, 12
  39. 39. OSS & Libraries Links • Open  Source  SoLware  in  Libraries hQp://   • Open  Source  SoLware  and  Libraries  Bibliography freelibre_and_open_source_soLware_and_libraries_bibliography   • PracMcal  Open  Source  SoLware  for  Libraries hQp:// • Open  Network  Libraries   hQp://   • FOSS4Lib hQp://  Thursday, January 19, 12
  40. 40. Open Source Blogs • The  Open  Road • New  York  Times  -­‐  Open hQp:// hQp://   • Open  Ended  from  Ars  Technica • hQp://­‐source hQp://   • The  H  Open  Source • Open  Source  at  DatamaMon hQp://www.h-­‐   • ZDNet  Open  Source hQp://­‐sourceThursday, January 19, 12
  41. 41. Online Reading List • Open  Source:  Narrowing  the  Divides  between  EducaMon,  Business,  and  Community hQp:// • The  concepts  of  Free  SoLware  &  Open  Standards:  IntroducMon  to  Free  SoLware   hQp://     • We  Love  Open  Source  SoLware.  No,  You  Can’t  Have  Our  Code hQp://   • Open  Source  SoLware  Tools  And  Directories:  Where  To  Find  Them,  How  To  Evaluate  Them hQp://­‐source-­‐soLware-­‐tools-­‐and-­‐directories-­‐where-­‐to-­‐find-­‐them-­‐ how-­‐to-­‐evaluate-­‐them/ • Open  Source  Security  Bibliography hQp://   • Nicole’s  Zotero  Library hQp://, January 19, 12
  42. 42. Print Reading List • Prac%cal  Open  Source  So/ware  in  Libraries  by  Nicole  C.  Engard   • The  Cathedral  and  the  Bazaar:  Musings  on  Linux  and  Open  Source  by  an  Accidental   Revolu%onary  by  Eric  S.  Raymond • Embracing  Insanity:  Open  Source  So/ware  Development  by  Russell  Pavlicek • The  success  of  open  source  by  Steve  Weber • The  open  source  alterna%ve:  Understanding  risks  and  leveraging  opportuni%es  by   Heather  J.  Meeker • Open  Sources  2.0:  The  Con%nuing  Evolu%on  by  Chris  DiBona,  Mark  Stone,  and  Danese   CooperThursday, January 19, 12
  43. 43. Thank You! Nicole C. Engard Vice President of Education ByWater Solutions nengard@bywatersolutions.comThursday, January 19, 12