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Landscape

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malawi forest and deforestation

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Landscape

  1. 1. FOREST AND DEFORESTATION Compiled by WAPULUMUKA MULWAFU AND JACQUILINE KAMANGA
  2. 2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND CHANGING FACE OF MALAWI IN DEVELOPMENT FUTURE CHALLENGES IN MALAWI CASE STUDIES :THEORIES OF THE FUTURE
  3. 3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  4. 4.  Malawi is one of the world's least-developed countries  Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture and over 90 percent of its population is rural  According to the U.N. FAO, 34.4% or about 3,237,000 ha of Malawi is forested,  Of this 28.9% ( 934,000 ) is classified as primary forest, the most biodiverse and carbon-dense form of forest.  Malawi had 365,000 ha of planted forest.
  5. 5.  Malawi Forest Figures Forest Cover Total forest area: 3,402,000 ha % of land area: 36.2% Primary forest cover: 1,132,000 ha % of land area: 12.0% % total forest area: 33.3%
  6. 6.  Deforestation is a serious problem in Malawi.  Between 1990 and 2005, the country lost nearly 13 percent of its total forest cover due to fuelwood collection and subsistence and commercial agriculture.  Tobacco farming, which accounts for nearly 80 percent of the nation's export earnings (Trade Environment Database: Malawi Tobacco Industry and the Environment), is sometimes blamed for deforestation, but perhaps more importantly, it saps the country's economy.
  7. 7. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION  Agricultural activities:  Logging: Logging is the cutting, on-site processing and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.  Urbanization: Trees are chopped for construction of roads. Overpopulation also affects forest covers, as with the expansion of cities more land is needed to establish housing and settlements.  Forest fires: Hundreds of trees are lost each year due to forest fires in various portions of the world which lead to huge loss of forest cover.
  8. 8. CHANGING FACE OF MALAWI IN DEVELOPMENT
  9. 9. EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION  Increase in Global Warming: Trees play a major role in controlling global warming. With constant deforestation the ratio of green house gases in the atmosphere increases.  Soil Erosion: With the clearance of tree cover, the soil is directly exposed to the sun, making it dry and easy erosion.
  10. 10. EFFECTS CONTI…  Floods: When it rains, trees absorb and store large amount of water with the help of their roots. When they are cut down, the flow of water is disrupted and leads to floods in some areas and droughts in other.  Wildlife extinction: Due to massive felling down of trees, various species of animals are lost. They lose their habitat and forced to move to new location. Some of them are even pushed to extinction.
  11. 11. EFFECTS CONTI…  Increased siltation of rivers and lakes has had a chain reaction on the environment.  Siltation in relation to over-fishing has reduced the number of fish in lake Malawi.  Deforestation has left land susceptible to gully formations.
  12. 12. EFFECTS CONTI…  Droughts have increased periodically due to the disruption in the process of rain formation trees play.
  13. 13. SOLUTIONS TO DEFORESTATION  The best solution to deforestation is to curb the felling of trees, by employing a series of rules and laws to govern it.  Clear cutting of forests must be banned. This will curb total depletion of the forest cover. It is a practical solution and is very feasible.  The cutting must be replaced by planting young trees to replace the older ones that were cut. (afforestation)
  14. 14. FUTURE CHALLENGES IN MALAWI
  15. 15. ELECTRICITY  Connecting the 80% of the rural Malawian households (Malawi Facts and Figures) that still use wood or charcoal to sustainable and alternative fuel sources.  Re-afforestation in rural communities may not be well advised and enforced  Boosting hydroelectric power can be challenging due to lowering water table that is caused by deforestation along catchment areas
  16. 16. HEALTH  The reliance of fish for protein by the lakeshore communities has had a major set back over the years. As a result of large-scale soil erosion due to deforestation, the lake is suffering from siltation which together with over-fishing has caused the fish stacks to reduce.  In the 1970s, the average consumption of fish was 14kg per person per year but that has gone down to 4kg per person per year.  End result is malnutrition and stunted growth.
  17. 17. POLITICAL  Political interference on policy enforcement as of the case during the change from a one party system to a multiparty system and democracy in 1994. the people believed that they had their freedom to do what they liked.
  18. 18. ECONOMIC  Malawi will not be able to export exotic tree species for economic gain  Sawyers and charcoal traders will be left stranded as to what trade they should join when the trees become scarce
  19. 19. CASE STUDIES :THEORIES OF THE FUTURE
  20. 20. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION  Interventions involve establishing small-scale infrastructure such as terraces, check dams, infiltration trenches, and contour bunds along slopes and hillsides for the purposes of regulating water flow during heavy rains to prevent intense erosion and gully formation.  The check dams and terraces reduce the force of water flow downslope while the infiltration ditches and contour bunds absorb and accumulate soil and water.
  21. 21. AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGIES Definition  Agriculture technologies refer to any type of intercropping of trees with crops.  Examples include: conservation agriculture, farmer-managed natural regeneration and agroforestry  Trees on croplands stabilize the soil and improve soil fertility
  22. 22. RIVER AND STREAM BANK RESTORATION  River- and stream bank-restoration focuses on establishing buffers of trees along streams and river courses to stabilize the soil, either through active planting or natural regeneration.  Benefits include; decreased soil erosion and sedimentation into waterways, which in turn improves water quality and quantity.  More than 36,000 hectares in Malawi are suitable for river- and stream-bank restoration
  23. 23. FOREST MANAGEMENT  The forest management restoration intervention includes three types of activities: 1) Protection of existing forest (e.g., implementing fire prevention and control, and enforcing restrictions on tree cutting) 2) Natural forest management (e.g., natural regeneration and enrichment plantings to encourage regrowth of natural forest) 3) Improved forest plantation management for sustainability, profitability, and efficiency
  24. 24. COMMUNITY FORESTS AND WOODLOTS  Community forests (such as village forest areas) and woodlots are areas of customary or private land set aside and managed for wood and non-wood products.  They may be managed by a traditional authority, community, a family or an individual.  Can provide a regular, local supply of products (e.g., poles, timber, fuel wood, fruit, etc.) for house consumption or for sale.
  25. 25. BIBLIOGRAPHY  https://www.rippleafrica.org/a-charity-in-malawi-africa/malawi- facts-and-figures  https://www.rippleafrica.org/environment-projects-in-malawi- africa/deforestation-in-africa  http://www.reuters.com/article/us-malawi-forests-climate- idUSKBN0OA12P20150525  http://www.mw.one.un.org/promoting-natural-forest-conservation- through-beekeeping-in-tukumbo-kande-landscape-northern- malawi
  26. 26. THANK YOU

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