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  1. 1. Urogenital System Term refers to the Excretory System and Reproductive Systems Excretory System sometimes called Urinary System Two systems are often discussed at the same time because of similar location in body cavity
  2. 2. Excretory System Excretion: process which metabolic wastes are eliminated Functions: 1) Homeostasis 2) Removes waste from blood 3) Maintain pH blood 4) Regulate water content of blood
  3. 3. Excretory Organs: Skin – removes excess water, salts, and small amount urea in sweat Lungs – eliminate CO2 Liver (digestive organ as well) – converts amino acids into other compounds and takes toxic nitrogen compounds and converts to urea Kidneys – removes urea and other metabolic wastes from bloodstream
  4. 4. Kidneys and Related Structures Left/Right Kidney Ureter – tube carries urine from kidneys to bladder • Bladder – sac where urine stored • Urethra- tube empties bladder • Renal artery- brings blood containing waste to kidney to be filtered • Renal vein – takes clean blood back to body Renal artery/vein
  5. 5. Control of Kidney Function Activity of kidney controlled by: 1) Composition of blood 2) Hormones •Drink glass water/Eat Salty Food: 1) water absorbed into bloodstream from capillaries near digestive tract = concentration water blood increases 2) kidneys respond by slowing rate water reabsorption 3) Less water returned to blood, excess water sent to bladder •Kidney Function controls blood composition regulating the environment for the body cells (preventing swelling/shrinking) •Dialysis- process blood removed from body and filtered through special tubing that simulates the kidneys removing urea and excess salts (waste)
  6. 6. Kindney Function 1) Filtration- removing wastes -smaller particles diffuse out of the blood -filtrate particles include: water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids, and vitamins -Large particles remain in blood: plasma proteins, platelets, RBC, and WBC •2) Reabsorption- -purified blood returned bloodstream -urine emptied into ureters (leads to bladder) *kidney stones- salts from urine crystallize blocking ureter
  7. 7. Human Reproductive System Reproduction- process creates new individual Only system that if it fails, will not cause death. 2 Basic Functions: 1) production gametes 2) secretion sex horomones
  8. 8. The Male Reproductive System Function: produce/deliver sperm Important Hormones: FSH, LH, and testosterone FSH/LH- stimulates cells within testes to produce testosterone  stimulates development sperm  Structure Sperm:
  9. 9. “The Pathway of Sperm” Sperm cells are produced in seminiferous tubules inside testes After sperm cells are produced in testes, stored/mature in area above testes called epididymis In order to fertilize the egg, sperm must exit the body 1) Vas deferens- tube connects epididymis to urethra 2) Urethra- tube urine/semen exit the body 3) Glands add fluid as sperm exit the body: - Seminal vesicles -nourishes sperm - Bulbourethral gland/prostate gland – secrete fluid protects sperm from acid in vagina • Sperm + Glandular secretions = SEMEN
  10. 10. The “Pathway” of Sperm Penis Urethra Testes Epididymis Vas Deferens Bulbourethral Gland Seminal Vesicle Prostate Gland Bladder
  11. 11. The Female Reproductive System Function: produce egg cell/nourish baby After puberty, females produce one egg month until mid- 40’s when females reach a state called menopause. Menopause- ovulation/mestruation stop/having children no longer possible Menstrual cycle is regulated by several hormones made in hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries.
  12. 12. Overview of Menstrual Cycle Menstrual cycle (average 28 days) includes: -Development egg -Release egg -Preparation uterus •Each month 2 possible results: 1) Egg fertilized by sperm, implants uterus = pregnancy 2) Egg NOT fertilized, lining uterus/dead egg/blood discharged = “period”
  13. 13. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle 1) Follicular Phase: -Level of hormone called estrogen is very low -Low estrogen level causes hypothalamus  pituitary gland release FSH/LH (hormones) -Stimulates follicle (cluster of cells around egg cell) to mature -Level estrogen begins to rise end of this phase, which thickens the lining uterus
  14. 14. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle 2) Ovulation: -Shortest phase in cycle lasting 3-4 days on average -Occurs “midpoint” in cycle -Time period when most “fertile” -Hypothalamus  sends releasing hormone to pituitary  causes rise in FSH/LH  causes follicle to rupture releasing egg into fallopian tube -Egg must be fertilized few days for pregnancy occur (while in the fallopian tube)
  15. 15. Egg Development
  16. 16. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle 3) Luteal Phase: -After egg released -Follicle (area where egg was) becomes corpus luteum  releasing estrogen/progesterone as well -Estrogen causes tissue lining uterus thicken -Progesterone increases blood supply to uterus -Uterus must prepare for possible “implantation” (pregnancy)
  17. 17. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle 4) Menstruation: -Phase only occurs if egg not fertilized -2-3 days after ovulation if egg not fertilized, follicle disintegrates causing levels of estrogen and progesterone to drop -Estrogen level drops low enough  lining uterus begins die/detach -Menstrual period = blood and tissue released (lasting 3-7 days/new cycle begins with day 1 menstruation)
  18. 18. (Estrogen)
  19. 19. Female Anatomy Urethra Ovary Uterus Cervix Bladder Fallopian Tube