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  1. 1. Urogenital SystemTerm refers to the Excretory System andReproductive SystemsExcretory System sometimes called UrinarySystemTwo systems are often discussed at the sametime because of similar location in body cavity
  2. 2. Excretory SystemExcretion: process which metabolic wastes areeliminatedFunctions:1) Homeostasis2) Removes waste from blood3) Maintain pH blood4) Regulate water content of blood
  3. 3. Excretory Organs:Skin – removes excess water, salts, and small amounturea in sweatLungs – eliminate CO2Liver (digestive organ as well) – converts amino acidsinto other compounds and takes toxic nitrogen compoundsand converts to ureaKidneys – removes urea and other metabolic wastesfrom bloodstream
  4. 4. Kidneys and Related StructuresLeft/Right KidneyUreter – tube carries urinefrom kidneys to bladder• Bladder – sac where urinestored• Urethra- tube empties bladder• Renal artery- brings bloodcontaining waste to kidneyto be filtered• Renal vein – takes cleanblood back to bodyRenal artery/vein
  5. 5. Control of Kidney FunctionActivity of kidney controlled by:1) Composition of blood2) Hormones•Drink glass water/Eat Salty Food:1) water absorbed into bloodstream from capillaries near digestive tract = concentrationwater blood increases2) kidneys respond by slowing rate water reabsorption3) Less water returned to blood, excess water sent to bladder•Kidney Function controls blood composition regulating the environment for the bodycells (preventing swelling/shrinking)•Dialysis- process blood removed from body and filtered through special tubing thatsimulates the kidneys removing urea and excess salts (waste)
  6. 6. Kindney Function1) Filtration- removing wastes-smaller particles diffuse out of the blood-filtrate particles include: water, urea, glucose, salts, amino acids, andvitamins-Large particles remain in blood: plasma proteins, platelets, RBC, andWBC•2) Reabsorption--purified blood returned bloodstream-urine emptied into ureters (leads to bladder)*kidney stones- salts from urine crystallize blocking ureter
  7. 7. Human Reproductive SystemReproduction- process creates new individualOnly system that if it fails, will not cause death.2 Basic Functions:1) production gametes2) secretion sex horomones
  8. 8. The Male Reproductive SystemFunction: produce/deliver spermImportant Hormones: FSH, LH, and testosteroneFSH/LH- stimulates cells within testes to produce testosterone stimulates development sperm Structure Sperm:
  9. 9. “The Pathway of Sperm”Sperm cells are produced in seminiferous tubules inside testesAfter sperm cells are produced in testes, stored/mature in area above testescalled epididymisIn order to fertilize the egg, sperm must exit the body1) Vas deferens- tube connects epididymis to urethra2) Urethra- tube urine/semen exit the body3) Glands add fluid as sperm exit the body:- Seminal vesicles -nourishes sperm- Bulbourethral gland/prostate gland – secrete fluid protectssperm from acid in vagina• Sperm + Glandular secretions = SEMEN
  10. 10. The “Pathway” of SpermPenisUrethraTestesEpididymisVasDeferensBulbourethralGlandSeminal Vesicle Prostate GlandBladder
  11. 11. The Female Reproductive SystemFunction: produce egg cell/nourish babyAfter puberty, females produce one egg month until mid-40’s when females reach a state called menopause.Menopause- ovulation/mestruation stop/having children nolonger possibleMenstrual cycle is regulated by several hormones made inhypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries.
  12. 12. Overview of Menstrual CycleMenstrual cycle (average 28 days) includes:-Development egg-Release egg-Preparation uterus•Each month 2 possible results:1) Egg fertilized by sperm, implants uterus = pregnancy2) Egg NOT fertilized, lining uterus/dead egg/blooddischarged = “period”
  13. 13. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle1) Follicular Phase (Day 1-10):-Level of hormone called estrogen is very low-Low estrogen level causes hypothalamus pituitary gland release FSH/LH (hormones)-Stimulates follicle (cluster of cells around egg cell) tomature-Level estrogen begins to rise end of this phase, whichthickens the lining uterus
  14. 14. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle2) Ovulation (Day 11-15)-Shortest phase in cycle lasting 3-4 days on average-Occurs “midpoint” in cycle-Time period when most “fertile”-Hypothalamus  sends releasing hormone to pituitary causes rise in FSH/LH  causes follicle to rupturereleasing egg into fallopian tube-Egg must be fertilized few days for pregnancy occur (whileinthe fallopian tube)
  15. 15. Egg Development
  16. 16. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle3) Luteal Phase (Day 16-25)-After egg released-Follicle (area where egg was) becomes corpus luteum releasing estrogen/progesterone as well-Estrogen causes tissue lining uterus thicken-Progesterone increases blood supply to uterus-Uterus must prepare for possible “implantation” (pregnancy)
  17. 17. 4 Phases of Menstrual Cycle4) Menstruation (Days 25-28)-Phase only occurs if egg not fertilized-2-3 days after ovulation if egg not fertilized, follicledisintegrates causing levels of estrogen and progesteroneto drop-Estrogen level drops low enough  lining uterusbegins die/detach-Menstrual period = blood and tissue released (lasting 3-7days/new cycle begins with day 1 menstruation)
  18. 18. (Estrogen)
  19. 19. Female AnatomyUrethraOvaryUterusCervixBladderFallopian Tube