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Basic Plant Characteristics1) Multicellular2) Eukaryotic3) Cell walls contain cellulose4) Develop from multicellular embryos5) Autotrophic make food by photosynthesis using chlorophyll
What Plants Need to Survive…• Sunlight• Water• Vitamins/Minerals• Gas Exchange (O2 and CO2)• A method of transport to move water and other materials to all parts of plant.
General Life Cycle Plants• Two alternating phases: 1) Diploid Phase (Sporophyte) -Sporophyte makes spores by meiosis -Develop into gametophyte 2) Haploid Phase (Gametophyte) -Produce male and female gametes by mitosis -Gametes eventually join to form sporophyte
Evolutionary Trends and Plants…• Ancestors of 1st plants were multicellular green algae• Plants have evolved specific adaptations to help them survive in a variety of different climates.• There are 4 major groups of plants which are separated by three distinct features: 1) vascular tissue 2) Seeds 3) flowers
Plant Review • Four main groups of plants 1. Bryophytes (Moss) NO SEEDS 2. Seedless vascular plants (Ferns) 3. Gymnosperms (Cone bearingSEED plants)PLANTS • Form seeds in “cones.” 1. Angiosperms (Flowering plants) • Form seeds inside of “flowers.”
Bryophytes•Non-vascular plants•Obtain/transfer water by osmosis•No true roots, leaves, stems•“Rhizoids”– anchor plant to ground•Low-growing (only few inches high)•Grow moist, shaded areas•Ex) Mosses, liverworts, hornworts
Life Cycle Bryophytes• Gametophyte is dominant stage• Depends on water to reproduce• Spore protonema (tangled mass green filaments) develop into gametophyte plant• Specific structures make reproductive cells at tips of gametophyte plant• Antheridia = sperm and Archegonia = egg• Join create diploid zygotes = sporophyte stage
Seedless Vascular Plants • 1st true land plants • Contain “vascular tissue” • Ex) Ferns, club moss, horsetails
Structure: Seedless Vascular Plants• 2 Types of vascular tissue: -xylem – moves water from roots to all parts of plants -phloem – distributes nutrients and carbohyrates (food) within plant• Have roots, leaves, and stems -roots – absorb water/nutrients -leaves – site photosynthesis -stems – support plant and connect leaves and roots• Ferns have strong roots called “rhizomes” and very large leaves called “fronds.”
Fern Life Cycle• Sporophyte dominant stage• Grow haploid spores underside of fronds in structures called sporangia (clustered sporangia = sori)• Spores carried by wind and water grow into haploid gametophyte• Gametophyte makes antheridia and archegonium which release sperm and eggs.• Zygotes form adult, diploid, sporophyte.
Gymnosperms •Reproduce with seeds instead of spores •Do not require water for reproduction •Seeds are “exposed” = naked seeds •Seed produced inside cone-like structure •Ex) “Conifers/Evergreens”–fir, spruce, ginko
Angiosperms• Most common of all land plants.• Seeds develop inside ovary within a “flower”• Flowers attract animals to support pollination.• After “fertilization” seed within flower develops into “fruit.”• Angiosperms = “enclosed seed”• 2 groups angiosperms: 1) Monocots 2) Dicots
Life Spans Angiosperms• Annuals- survive one season• Biennials- take 2 years to complete life cycle• Perennials- live many years