General Information• What makes a circulatory system necessary?-small organisms lack a circulatory systembecause diffusion...
Functions of CirculatorySystem• Delivery jobs:-nutrients-oxygen-water and vitamins-hormones• Pick up jobs:-CO2 and carry t...
Composition of Blood• 55% plasma, 45% cells
Composition of Blood• Plasma:-non-living-90% water-10% proteins, waste, dissolved gases, salts,nutrients, and hormones-3 T...
Composition of BloodCellular Portion• Red blood cells-“erythrocytes”-transport oxygen-contain hemoglobinprotein that carri...
Composition of BloodCellular Portion• White blood cells-“leukocytes”-destroys pathogens-makes antibodies-stored in spleen,...
Composition of BloodCellular Portion• Platelets-cell fragments-useful clotting blood• *Hemophiliacs problemswith blood clo...
Blood Clotting• Platelets contact edgeof broken blood vessel“stick”= platelet plug• Platelets releaseclotting factor calle...
Blood Vessels• Blood travels through the body inside of vessels(closed circulatory system)• 3 Types of blood vessels1) Art...
Blood Vessels cont.3) Capillaries-connect veins and arteries-extremely thin, only 1 cell thick-O2/nutrients diffuse from h...
Blood Vessels
Human Heart• Muscularorgan- pumpsblood• Enclosed in aprotective saccalledpericardium
Structures of Heart• Mammals have a 4 chambered heart• Atria (atrium)- “upper chambers” collectblood coming to heart• Vent...
Flow of Blood Through Heart• Right Side (oxygen-poor)-enters vena cava-collects in the right atrium-through tricuspid valv...
Flow of Blood Through Heart• Left Side (oxygen-rich)-leaves lungs, carried to heart bypulmonary veins-enters left atrium-t...
Heartbeat• Muscle fibers through out heartstimulate contraction• Right atrium (sinoatrial node) sendselectrical impulses t...
Pathways of Circulation• Pulmonary circulation- carries bloodbetween heart and lungs• Systemic circulation- carries bloodf...
Blood Pressure• Measure of the force blood againstthe walls of arteries• Pressure helps blood circulate body• Systolic- me...
Cardiovascular Disease• Disease of heart and blood vessels• High levels of blood lipids may indicate high riskof heart dis...
Lymphatic System• Network of vessels, nodes, and organs• Function:1) collects fluid lost by blood and returnsback to circu...
Components ofLymphatic System• Lymph = “fluid”• Lymph vessels – collectfluid and return to venacava (circulatorysystem)• E...
Respiratory System• Respiration- process of gas exchange(carbon dioxide/oxygen) between thecells, blood, and lungs and env...
Mechanism for Breathing• Involves the movement air into and out of lungs• Diaphragm- muscle separates thorax (chestcavity)...
Structure of Lungs
Circulatory
Circulatory
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Circulatory

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Circulatory

  1. 1. General Information• What makes a circulatory system necessary?-small organisms lack a circulatory systembecause diffusion is a sufficient means forexchanging gases and transporting materials-larger organisms need circulatory systembecause all of their cells are not in directcontact with the environment and they need totransport substances made in one part oforganism to other areas• What are makes up human circulatory system?-heart, blood vessels, and blood
  2. 2. Functions of CirculatorySystem• Delivery jobs:-nutrients-oxygen-water and vitamins-hormones• Pick up jobs:-CO2 and carry to lungs-wastes and carry to kidneys• Other jobs:-maintain homeostasis (body temp.)-protect body from disease
  3. 3. Composition of Blood• 55% plasma, 45% cells
  4. 4. Composition of Blood• Plasma:-non-living-90% water-10% proteins, waste, dissolved gases, salts,nutrients, and hormones-3 Types Plasma Proteins:1) albumin – regulates osmotic pressure,transports fatty acids, hormones, vitamins2) globulin – helps fight infection (antibodies)3) fibrinogen – helps clot blood
  5. 5. Composition of BloodCellular Portion• Red blood cells-“erythrocytes”-transport oxygen-contain hemoglobinprotein that carries ironwhich binds with oxygen• People with iron poor diets become anemic. Ironaids in production hemoglobin.
  6. 6. Composition of BloodCellular Portion• White blood cells-“leukocytes”-destroys pathogens-makes antibodies-stored in spleen, tonsils,lymph nodes• -Leukemia is cancer of white blood cells(abnormal division of WBC’s).
  7. 7. Composition of BloodCellular Portion• Platelets-cell fragments-useful clotting blood• *Hemophiliacs problemswith blood clotting =excessive bleeding• *Stroke is an abnormalblood clot blocks bloodflow to areas of brain
  8. 8. Blood Clotting• Platelets contact edgeof broken blood vessel“stick”= platelet plug• Platelets releaseclotting factor calledthromboplastin convertsprothrombinthrombin• Thrombin (enzyme)converts fibrinogen fibrin• Fibrin filaments createa “sticky mesh” actinglike a net catching RBCto stop bleeding
  9. 9. Blood Vessels• Blood travels through the body inside of vessels(closed circulatory system)• 3 Types of blood vessels1) Arteries-carry O2 rich blood away from the heart-thick walls to with stand pressure-largest artery is aorta2) Veins-carry O2 poor blood back toward heart-contain valves help keep blood moving to heart(varicose veins)-largest vein is vena cava
  10. 10. Blood Vessels cont.3) Capillaries-connect veins and arteries-extremely thin, only 1 cell thick-O2/nutrients diffuse from hereinto tissues and CO2/wastesdiffuse back into here
  11. 11. Blood Vessels
  12. 12. Human Heart• Muscularorgan- pumpsblood• Enclosed in aprotective saccalledpericardium
  13. 13. Structures of Heart• Mammals have a 4 chambered heart• Atria (atrium)- “upper chambers” collectblood coming to heart• Ventricles- “lower chambers” pump bloodout of the heart• Chambers separated by valves- preventblood from flowing backwards• Septum- thick muscle divides right/lefthalves
  14. 14. Flow of Blood Through Heart• Right Side (oxygen-poor)-enters vena cava-collects in the right atrium-through tricuspid valve-into right ventricle-carried by pulmonary arteries tolungs***Pulmonary artery is the ONLY artery inthe body that carries oxygen poor blood
  15. 15. Flow of Blood Through Heart• Left Side (oxygen-rich)-leaves lungs, carried to heart bypulmonary veins-enters left atrium-through bicuspid valve intoleft ventricle-forced into aorta, carried restof body
  16. 16. Heartbeat• Muscle fibers through out heartstimulate contraction• Right atrium (sinoatrial node) sendselectrical impulses that starts waveof muscle contraction = pacemaker• Ventricular node receivescontraction impulse and wave andspreads through ventricles
  17. 17. Pathways of Circulation• Pulmonary circulation- carries bloodbetween heart and lungs• Systemic circulation- carries bloodfrom heart to rest of the body
  18. 18. Blood Pressure• Measure of the force blood againstthe walls of arteries• Pressure helps blood circulate body• Systolic- measures force blood inarteries when ventricles contract• Diastolic- measures force blood inarteries when ventricles relax• Healthy blood pressure reading isabout 120/80
  19. 19. Cardiovascular Disease• Disease of heart and blood vessels• High levels of blood lipids may indicate high riskof heart disease.• Cholesterol is a lipid.• 2 Types Cholesterol:-LDL “bad cholesterol” deposits on walls ofarteries = “plaque”-HDL “good cholesterol” carried back to liverfor removal from body• Atherosclerosis- condition caused by build upfatty deposits on wall arteries• Hypertension- condition in which blood pressureis constantly too high• Both conditions put person increased risk forheart attack and stroke
  20. 20. Lymphatic System• Network of vessels, nodes, and organs• Function:1) collects fluid lost by blood and returnsback to circulatory system2) filter fluid3) Absorb fats and vitamins fromdigestive tract and carry them to blood
  21. 21. Components ofLymphatic System• Lymph = “fluid”• Lymph vessels – collectfluid and return to venacava (circulatorysystem)• Edema- swelling due toblocked lymph vessels• Lymph nodes- filter andtrap bacteria and othermicroorganisms• “Swollen glands”• Thymus and Spleen
  22. 22. Respiratory System• Respiration- process of gas exchange(carbon dioxide/oxygen) between thecells, blood, and lungs and environment• Structures of Respiratory System:1) Nose2) Trachea (pharynx/larynx)3) Bronchi4) Lungs
  23. 23. Mechanism for Breathing• Involves the movement air into and out of lungs• Diaphragm- muscle separates thorax (chestcavity) and abdomen helps inhale and exhale air• Pathway air flow and gas exchange:1) Air enters the nose and mouth(filtered, moistened, warmed)2) Pharynx and larynx (vocal cords)3) Trachea (wind pipe)4) Bronchi (large tube leads to each lung)5) Lungs  bronchioles  aveoli (air sacswhere gas exchange occurs)
  24. 24. Structure of Lungs

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